32–34 MTP and PEMT are important factors for the metabolism in tr

32–34 MTP and PEMT are important factors for the metabolism in triglyceride. In addition, sex hormones are involved in gender differences in the incidence of NAFLD, and in postmenopausal women the decreased level of estrogen results in the accumulation of visceral fat and insulin

resistance.35 This may explain why postmenopausal women appear to be at a higher risk for the development of NAFLD. NAFLD can be diagnosed in patients from whom hepatitis virus infection, alcoholic liver disease and autoimmune hepatitis have been excluded when over 5% of hepatocytes contain fatty droplets. NAFLD encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis (SS) to NASH, the latter showing hepatocyte degeneration (ballooning find more hepatocyte), necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis.36 Recently, Matteoni et al. categorized NAFLD into four

types; type 1 (simple fatty liver), type 2 (steatohepatitis), type 3 (steatonecrosis) and type 4 (steatonecrosis + Mallory-Denk body (MDB) or fibrosis). They proposed that types 1 and 2 should be categorized as SS, and types 3 and 4 as NASH, according to the prognosis based on their follow-up study.37 Actually we sometimes encounter difficulty in the differential diagnosis between type 2 and type 3 NAFLD, and between type 3 and type 4 NAFLD. This is because the criteria of ballooning hepatocytes and presence of pericentral and pericelluar fibrosis are

unclear when these morphological Maraviroc cost changes are very mild. In 2005, Kleiner et al. proposed a new scoring system, the so-called NAFLD activity score (NAS), according to the extent of the three features: steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning and lobular inflammation. By the NAS, NASH is defined as having a score of five or more.38 This score is based on disease activity and the evaluation of fibrosis is excluded; this might be not suitable for the diagnosis of advanced staged NASH. Brunt and others proposed a grading and staging system according to the grade of inflammation and fibrosis,39 and this method is widely accepted in Japan. Ten to 30% of NASH cases have the potential to develop to cirrhosis within 10 years. However, much attention should be paid to so-called “burn-out NASH”, in which fatty droplets medchemexpress have disappeared during the progression of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in difficulty making a precise diagnosis of NASH. In such a case, we must make an effort to collect the detailed background and previous patient history. This difficulty could lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of NASH-cirrhosis the Mallory-Denk bodies (MDB) are one of the morphological hallmarks for the diagnosis of type 4 NAFLD: they are an abnormal flocculent producter in degenerated hepatocytes and are comprised of intermediate filaments (IF).

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