Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Most DBRFs were characterized

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Most DBRFs were characterized by coincident, preventable factors; breed was not one of these. Study results supported previous recommendations Prexasertib for multifactorial approaches, instead of single-factor solutions such as breed-specific legislation, for dog bite prevention.”
“Purpose: To evaluate inter- and intrareader agreement in breast percent density (PD) estimation on clinical digital mammograms and central digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) projection images.

Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval; all patients provided informed consent. Breast PD estimation was performed

on the basis of anonymized digital mammograms and central DBT projections in 39 women ( mean age, 51 years; range, 31-80 years). All women had recently detected abnormalities or biopsyproved cancers. PD was estimated by three experienced readers on the mediolateral oblique views of the contralateral breasts Tariquidar by using software; each reader repeated the estimation after 2 months. Spearman correlations of inter- and intrareader and intermodality PD estimates, as well as kappa statistics between categoric PD estimates, were computed.


High correlation (rho = 0.91) was observed between PD estimates on digital mammograms and those on central DBT projections, averaged over all estimations; the corresponding kappa coefficient (0.79) indicated substantial agreement. Mean interreader agreement for PD estimation on central DBT projections (rho = 0.85 +/- 0.05 [standard deviation]) was significantly higher (P < .01) than that for PD estimation on digital mammograms (rho = 0.75 +/- 0.05); the corresponding kappa coefficients indicated substantial (kappa = 0.65 +/- 0.12) and moderate (kappa = 0.55 +/- 0.14) agreement for central DBT projections and digital mammograms, respectively.


High correlation between PD estimates on digital mammograms and those on central DBT projections VE-821 manufacturer suggests the latter could be used until a method for PD estimation based on three-dimensional reconstructed images is introduced. Moreover, clinical PD estimation is possible with reduced radiation dose, as each DBT projection was acquired by using about 22% of the dose for a single mammographic projection.”
“P>Plants activate direct and indirect defences in response to insect egg deposition. However, whether eggs can manipulate plant defence is unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, oviposition by the butterfly Pieris brassicae triggers cellular and molecular changes that are similar to the changes caused by biotrophic pathogens. In the present study, we found that the plant defence signal salicylic acid (SA) accumulates at the site of oviposition.

Methods In this retrospective study, histological, MRI, and clin

Methods. In this retrospective study, histological, MRI, and clinical

data obtained in 293 patients with TCS who underwent FT transection were reviewed and analyzed in a multivariate analysis.

Results. The median patient age was 4.9 years (range 0.3-64.3 years). On MRI, a fatty filum was present in 65% of patients and a thickened filum (> 2 mm) was seen in 45%. Histologically, the FT contained prominent fibrous tissue in 95%, nerve twigs in 79%, adipose tissue in 59%, and vascular tissue in 36%. Histological LCL161 features associated with a thickened filum on MR images were adipose tissue (OR 3.5, p <0.001), nerve twigs (OR 2.2, p = 0.028), and vascular tissue (OR 0.5, p = 0.025). Adipose tissue was associated with a conus level below the L2-3 disc space (OR 2.3, p = 0.031) and with a fatty Cilengitide cell line filum on imaging (OR 9.8, p < 0.001). Nerve twigs were associated with abnormal urodynamics (OR 10.9, p = 0.049). The only variable predictive of clinical improvement was conus level; patients with conus levels caudal to L-2 were less likely to improve postoperatively (OR 0.3, p

= 0.042).

Conclusions. Fibrous tissue was ubiquitous and may be important in the pathophysiology of TCS. Nerve twigs and adipose tissue were associated with abnormal urodynamics and low-lying coni, respectively. Although the majority of patients clinically improved, patients with normal conus levels had significantly better outcomes.”
“The advent of high-content genomic mapping technologies has provided numerous clues about the genetic architecture of complex disease and the tools with which to understand the biological framework resulting from this architecture. We believe that understanding and mapping epigenetic marks, in particular DNA methylation, which is suited to such assays, offers a timely opportunity in this context. Here, we make an argument for this work, describing this opportunity, the likely path ahead, and the problems and pitfalls associated with such

work. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Congenital complete tracheal Salubrinal chemical structure rings are a rare and life threatening problem in young children and they are often challenging to manage. Whilst historically associated with high mortality rates increasing experience with this tracheal pathology has led to much improved survival rates and slide tracheoplasty has become the treatment of choice. We present 3 cases in which an open procedure was not deemed possible and they underwent laser division (CO2, KTP) of their complete rings. Two patients subsequently required stent insertion. All patients are alive and well at a mean follow up of 3 years and 5 months. Whilst laser division of complete tracheal rings has only been described in a small number of cases it may provide an alternative approach in patients who are not able to undergo an open procedure or in an emergency situation.

Chromatography was carried out on a reversed-phase Hypersil ODS c

Chromatography was carried out on a reversed-phase Hypersil ODS column at 30 degrees C MS-275 chemical structure using a mobile phase

consisting of methanol – 50 mM NH(4)OAc in water (23:77, v/v) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The excitation wavelength and emission wavelength were 250nm and 480nm, respectively, PMT-gain was set at 11. The method was demonstrated to be selective and sensitive, and a good linear response was observed over a range of 016-120.00 mu g/mL in rat plasma. The validated method was successfully applied to the characterization of the pharmacokinetics of puerarin in rat plasma after intravenous administration to rats. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: AUC(0 -> t) 41.94 +/- 12.90 (mg/L.h), AUC(0 ->infinity) 44.37 +/- 28.90 (mg/L.h), MRT 0.97 +/- Selleckchem ON-01910 0.37 (h), T(1/2) 1.06 +/- 039 (h), Vss 0.09 +/- 0.02 (L), Vz 0.14 +/- 0.03 (L), C1 0.10 +/- 0.05 (L/h).”
“One-electron oxidation of bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)aminoxyl with antimony pentachloride and bromine leads to the formation of oxoammonium salts with anions SbCl (6) (-) and Br (3) (-) respectively. The salt with the Br (3) (-) anion converted at heating into a mixture of bromodiphenylamines which formed also from the aminoxyl as a result of previously unknown reaction of three-electron reductive bromination.

The mechanisms of these reactions were assumed.”
“Trichosporon fungemia is a rare and fatal fungal infection that occurs in patients with prolonged neutropenia associated with hematologic malignancies. A 21-year-old male developed Trichosporon fungemia during remission induction therapy for acute myeloid

leukemia (AML). Although two courses of induction therapy failed to induce a remission of AML, combination therapy with voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) followed by monocyte colony-stimulating GSK2118436 factor ameliorated the Trichosporon fungemia and enabled the patient to receive reduced-intensity bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from his human leukocyte antigen-A one-locus mismatched mother. The patient achieved a durable remission after BMT without exacerbation of Trichosporon fungemia. The combination therapy with voriconazole and L-AmB may therefore be useful in controlling Trichosporon fungemia associated with prolonged neutropenia after remission induction therapy for AML.”
“The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (RTX; Rituxan (R), MabThera (R)) was the first anti-cancer antibody approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1997 and it is now the most-studied unconjugated therapeutic antibody. The knowledge gained over the past 15 y on the pharmacodynamics (PD) of this antibody has led to the development of a new generation of anti-CD20 antibodies with enhanced efficacy in vitro.

As viscosity was the most uncorrelated variable, hence it can be

As viscosity was the most uncorrelated variable, hence it can be used as a variable to study variance among samples treated by crude and commercial enzymes.”
“In this study, we focus on how the formation and enlargement of metallic pinholes in MgO barriers (induced by large electrical currents) affect the tunnel magnetoresistance

(TMR) of low and high resistance (R) magnetic tunnel junctions. The junctions were deposited by physical vapor deposition find more with barrier thicknesses of either 0.75 or 1.35 nm. For the parallel state, temperature-dependent R(T) measurements readily revealed a metallic conductance in the low-R sample, indicating that pinholes are already present in its thin barrier; a slight R(T) decrease with increasing temperature is observed for the high-R junction. After applying large current pulses

to the low-R sample, we observe that the initially small R-decrease (similar to 6%) is accompanied by a significant TMR increase (similar to 20% at 20 K). Higher applied electrical currents continue to decrease R, leading to a gradual but steady TMR decrease. In contrast, the high-R sample exhibits a sharp and immediate decrease in TMR as soon as the first pinhole is formed. The origin of these effects will be discussed in terms of a thermally induced improvement of the barrier/electrode interfaces PD98059 price and the possibility of a magnetoresistance mechanism occurring through the metallic pinholes. (c) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3236512]“
“(PACE 2009; 32:1096-1098).”
“Drying kinetics modeling and effective moisture diffusivity (D-eff) of osmotically dehydrated pretreated red sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.) during microwave assisted convective drying at power levels of 0.35, 0.70, 1.05, and 1.4 W/g, air temperature of 30, 45, and 60A degrees C, and constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s were investigated. The drying data were applied to 11 different semi-empirical mathematical models to characterize selleck chemicals llc the drying

kinetics and Page model provided a good agreement between experimental and predicted moisture ratio values with higher coefficient of determination (R-2) and lower root mean square error (RSME) and residual sum of square (RSS). D-eff decreased from 1.859×10(-7) to 3.55×10(-8) m(2)/s which is 10(2) to 10(3) times more than the previous investigations for food materials. Similarly, the activation energy decreased from 8.943 to 5.228 with decrease of drying temperature from 60 to 30A degrees C which is due to the effect of pretreatment (osmotic dehydration). So, pretreatment can be used as criteria for faster drying thereby maintaining final product quality.”
“We present the influence of gas pressure and applied voltage on Xe excimer radiation from a microdielectric barrier discharge (micro-DBD) in Ne/Xe gas mixture for plasma display panel.

Influence of the lattice mismatch on the material parameters and

Influence of the lattice mismatch on the material parameters and ME interactions has been taken into account using the classical Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological thermodynamic theory. The clamping effect of the substrate for nanobilayers and nanopillars or template

for nanowires have been considered in determining the ME voltage coefficient. The model is applied Small molecule library datasheet to nickel ferrite-lead zirconate titanate nanostructures on strontium titanate substrate or template. It is shown that the ME coupling strength decreases with increasing substrate or template volume fraction. For increasing thickness of substrate for a bilayer or the template radius for a nanowire (i) the ME coefficient drops exponentially and (ii) EMR frequency increases. For nanopillars on a substrate, a fine structure is predicted in the ME voltage CCI-779 in vivo versus frequency profile. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3359717]“
“The pharmacokinetics and effects of the opioid methadone on behaviour, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and haematocrit were studied in goats. Two goats received methadone (0.2 mg/kg) intravenously and the terminal half-life was 88 and 91 min, the volume of distribution 8.4 and 6.1 L/kg, and clearance 86 and 123 mL/min/kg. In a crossover

study eight goats received methadone (0.6 mg/kg) or 0.15 M NaCl subcutaneously (SC). After SC administration bioavailability GSK2879552 research buy was complete and the terminal half-life was 215 +/- 84 min (mean +/- SD), T-max 31 +/-

15 min and C-max 45 +/- 11 ng/mL. Blood pressure and haematocrit increased while heart rate did not change. The goats did not ruminate and they climbed, scratched, gnawed and showed tail-flicking after SC methadone in contrast to NaCl administration. The use of methadone in goats may be restricted due to the inhibition of rumination and the rather short half-life. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The stereosequence of polylactide has been analyzed with (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, according to which syndiotactic addition is preferred. According to Markovian statistics, the reactivity ratio, which determines the extent of the syndiotactic stereosequence in the polymer chain, can be calculated by an analysis of the carbonyl and methine regions in the spectra. Moreover, the average lengths of segments SS and RR can be proposed and calculated with the distributing function of the sequence. On this basis, we have investigated the formation mechanism with respect to the preference for the syndiotactic addition of polylactide chains. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Recent findings

Because of earlier detection, the natu

Recent findings

Because of earlier detection, the nature of cancer has changed, from a disease usually diagnosed at a late and incurable stage to a heterogeneous condition that varies from clinically insignificant to rapidly aggressive. Screening programs for PLX3397 mouse cancer have resulted in a dramatic increase in the diagnosis of clinically insignificant disease, balanced by improved survival and mortality because of significant cancers being diagnosed at a more curable stage. Overdiagnosis requires the presence of microfocal disease and a screening test to identify this. This exists for breast, prostate, and thyroid

cancers, and to a lesser degree for renal and lung cancer. The problem of cancer overdiagnosis and overtreatment is complex, with numerous causes and many trade-offs. It is particularly important in prostate cancer, but is a major issue in many other cancer sites. Screening for prostate cancer appears, based on the best data from randomized trials, to significantly reduce cancer mortality.


Reducing overtreatment in patients diagnosed with

indolent disease is critical to the success selleck products of screening.”
“Background: Fixation of intra-articular calcaneal fractures has traditionally been guided by intraoperative fluoroscopy. Recent reports indicate that there is a role for subtalar arthroscopy in surgical fixation of these fractures. The earliest reports described the use of subtalar arthroscopy for joint assessment during late hardware removal. It then served as an adjunct for joint inspection in open reduction and internal fixation. In its final permutation, percutaneous arthroscopy was performed with minimally invasive reduction check details and fixation, minimizing soft tissue complications commonly associated with the open approach. In practiced hands, this technique yields good results with minimal morbidity.

Methods: We performed a prospective analysis of 22 consecutive patients with Sanders II, AO-OTA 83-C2 intra-articular calcaneal fractures who underwent

dual-modality imaging (subtalar arthroscopic- and intraoperative fluoroscopic-) guided percutaneous fracture fixation with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Maximum accepted postreduction step-off was 1 mm. Fractures were fixed definitively with four to eight percutaneous cancellous screws.

Results: There was significant correction of Bohler’s tuberosity-joint angle from 4.2 degrees +/- 11.1 degrees preoperatively to 21.3 degrees +/- 8.8 degrees on immediate postoperative radiographs, with minimal subsidence to 20.1 degrees +/- 8.2 degrees at 2 years. Bohler’s angle correction and joint surface restoration could not be achieved percutaneously in one patient with an impacted, depressed joint fragment. Compared with preoperative values, there was significant improvement in mean Visual Analog Scale, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Score, and Short Form-36 (Physical Function) scores at 3 months, with further improvement up to 2-years.

These changes in nutrient profiles, reflecting altered patterns i

These changes in nutrient profiles, reflecting altered patterns in food consumption or other behaviors, may explain in part why Mexican American men who are more acculturated have an increased risk for diet-related cancer.”
“SETTING: Sputum

induction has increasingly enabled microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in hospitalised children, but it has not been evaluated in a community setting.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate KPT-8602 the yield, feasibility and safety of sputum induction for the diagnosis of TB in children in a primary health care facility. DESIGN: A prospective study in a primary health care clinic in South Africa from April 2007 to June 2009. Consecutive children with clinically suspected PTB, with a household adult PTB contact or human immunodeficiency virus infected with respiratory symptoms were enrolled. History, clinical examination, tuberculin skin test and chest X-ray results were recorded. Two sequential induced sputum specimens were obtained for smear and culture.


total of 270 children were enrolled (median age 38 months); sputum induction was successful in 269 (99%); 65 (24%) children were clinically diagnosed, of whom 11 (16.9%) were microbiologically confirmed. An additional 18 children not clinically diagnosed had microbiological confirmation of PTB and were placed on TB treatment thereafter, increasing the diagnostic yield by 21.6%, from 65 to 83 cases. Sputum induction procedures were well tolerated; no major adverse events occurred.

CONCLUSION: find more Sputum induction is feasible and safe in a community setting. Sputum induction was useful for making a microbiological diagnosis, increasing the number of children diagnosed and treated for PTB.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish a new approach to improve detection of deafness due to rubella.

Methods: Colombian institutes for the deaf were visited by a medical team

to perform in all enrolled individuals Fosbretabulin an ophthalmological examination with emphasis in fundus eye by a retina specialist. In cases where ocular alterations compatible with CRS were found, a medical interview by a clinical geneticist analyzing pre-and postnatal history and a thorough medical examination was done.

Results: A total of 1383 deaf institutionalized individuals were evaluated in 9 Colombian cities in the period of 2005 to 2006, finding a total of 463 positive cases for salt-and-pepper retinopathy (33.5%), in which rubella could be the etiology of deafness. Medellin, Cartagena, Bucaramanga and Barranquilla were the cities with the highest percentage of Congenital rubella, corresponding to 22.8% of analyzed population. The analysis performed on cases in which reliable prenatal history was obtained in a second appointment (n = 88) showed association between positive viral symptoms during pregnancy and salt-and-pepper retinopathy in 62.

The scope and limitations of the method are discussed with regard

The scope and limitations of the method are discussed with regard to plants of the genus Hypericum. Naphthodianthrones such as hypericin and pseudohypericin are traceable in dark glands on Hypericum leaves, placenta, stamens and styli; biflavonoids are also traceable in the pollen of this important

phytomedical plant. The highest spatial resolution achieved, 10 mu m, was much higher than that achieved by commonly used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging protocols. The data from imaging experiments were supported by independent LDI-TOF/MS analysis of cryo-sectioned, laser-microdissected and freshly cut plant material. The results confirmed the suitability of combining laser microdissection (LMD) and LDI-TOF/MS or LDI-MSI to analyse localized plant secondary metabolites. Furthermore, Arabidopsis thaliana was analysed to demonstrate Small molecule library the feasibility of LDI-MSI for other commonly occurring compounds such as flavonoids. The organ-specific distribution of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin, and their glycosides, was imaged at the cellular level.”
“Craniofacial malformation in 64 sheep was phenotypically described as mandibular distoclusion. Digital radiographs were examined in order to determine the degree of morphological changes in certain bones

of the skull. Therefore, laterolateral INCB018424 standardised digital radiographs were used to determine anatomic reference points. Subsequently, five reference lines were defined and 16 linear and seven angular measurements were determined to describe malformations in the bones of the skull. Statistical analysis revealed a significant shortening of the rostral part of the corpus mandibulae and of the ramus mandibtilae. However, the molar part of the mandible remained unchanged. These morphological changes caused premolar and molar malocclusion. No further craniofacial abnormalities, such as an elongation of the maxilla or of the incisive bone, were

identified. In conclusion, the phenotypically observed mandibular distoclusion is caused by a shortening of specific parts of the mandible. This form of ovine craniofacial malformation is therefore best described as brachygnathia inferior. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this article, organic/inorganic membrane was prepared for gas separation by incorporating dodeca-tungstophosphric acid (PWA) into the base polymer. Flat-sheet composite membranes were produced via dry-phase inversion method. In the first stage, the effects of PWA concentration on morphology and performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes were elucidated. For this stage, the preparation of membranes was carried out at constant temperature of 40 degrees C. The porosity of the prepared membrane was slightly increased with addition of PWA.

Haplotype analysis showed that the “”GCAGCG”" haplotype (HAP2) wa

Haplotype analysis showed that the “”GCAGCG”" haplotype (HAP2) was overrepresented in LSS patients (P = 0.023, odds ratio [OR] = 1.86), especially in those with severe stenosis (P = 0.018, OR = 1.98). In addition, the “”TCAGCG”" haplotype (HAP4) was overrepresented JQ1 order in controls (P = 0.042, OR = 0.52).

Conclusion. Although no SNPs in COL9A2 were associated with LSS, a COL9A2 haplotype (HAP2) was significantly associated with LSS in

the Korean population, whereas another haplotype (HAP4) may play a protective role against LSS development. However, the genetic functions of COL9A2 haplotypes in LSS remain to be determined.”
“The adaptational characteristics due to long-term adaptation in the natural habitats of common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) contrasted considerably among three different

ecotypes: dune reed (DR), Gobi salt reed (GSR) and swamp reed (SR). The micromorphologies of leaf adaxial surfaces showed tapered setae and a non-smooth surface in DR, compound papillose structures with wax and hairs in GSR, but only papillose structures for the smooth surface of SR. Anatomical analysis showed that DR and GSR had higher bundle-sheath cell areas and a lower xylem/phloem ratio than SR. There were many sclerenchyma cells in vascular bundle of DR and GSR and crystal idioblasts in all ecotypes. Chloroplasts had ellipsoid shape in SR, but they were attached to the cell wall with selleck products oblong shape and contained many starch grains in DR and GSR. Higher concentrations of NO, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, higher MK-4827 solubility dmso ratio of carotenoids/chlorophyll and higher activities in T-AOC and SOD were found in DR and GSR. Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activities were greatest in GSR. All these data suggested that the greater relative stress tolerance of DR and GSR was due to a combination of morpho-anatomical adaptational characteristics and physio-chemical responses, and indicated the different mechanisms in their respective natural habitats. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”

Rotavirus vaccines were introduced into the funded Australian National Immunization Program (NIP) in July 2007. Due to purchasing arrangements, individual states and territories chose either a 2-dose RV1 (Rotarix, GSK) regimen or 3-dose RV5 (Rotateq, Merck/CSL) regimen. This allowed comparison of both vaccines in similar populations with high infant vaccination coverage.

Methods: Admission and rotavirus identification data from the major pediatric hospitals in 3 states (2 using RV5, 1 RV1), together with state-based hospitalization and vaccination data from Queensland (RV5) were analyzed for the years before, and up to 30 months following rotavirus vaccine introduction. Emergency encounters and short-stay unit admissions for gastroenteritis are also described.

Results: Rotavirus vaccine coverage in Australia is high, with 87% of infants receiving at least I dose.

3, 0 5, and 10 mol %, respectively GPC, IR, and NMR results show

3, 0.5, and 10 mol %, respectively. GPC, IR, and NMR results show that the silphenylene units have been incorporated into the polymer of silicone resin. The TG analysis indicates that this novel silicone resin has good heat resistance selleck compound with the onset degradation

temperature of 500.3 degrees C and residual weight of 85.6% at 900 degrees C. SEM results demonstrate that the silicone resin with silphenylene units can form full and uniform films, and its surface morphology of clear paints were not damaged by heat below 350 degrees C. EIS analysis reveals that clear paints of the silicone resin with silphenylene units have good resistance to corrosion. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 971-977, 2009″
“Background There is a lack of U.S-based studies on basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the upper lip treated using Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Objective To explore characteristics of BCC of the upper lip treated using MMS. Methods We performed a chart review of BCC cases from 2005 to 2011. Results Two hundred eighty-one cases were identified. There was a slight female predominance (55%). Men

had a larger initial (p < .01) and final (p = .03) defect size. Infiltrative tumors had larger initial (p < .01) and final areas (p < .01). Ten percent of tumors were designated recurrent after previous treatment. Recurrent lesions (p < selleck products .001) and older age (p = .03) were associated with larger initial size. Complex reconstruction was required: 44% by local flap or graft and 13% by plastic surgery. Conclusion There was a 1.2:1 female to male ratio, in contrast to the previously reported female predominance of 3.5:1. This cohort showed a higher recurrence rate 5-Fluoracil than reported in the literature. Men and elderly patients were also found to have significantly larger initial lesion size. Thirteen percent of patients required repair by plastic surgery, reflecting heightened levels of cosmetic concern. These findings suggest that MMS is important in delineating subclinical tumor spread and providing complex repairs.”
“Results from

an extensive reliability characterization of HfLaSiO(N) devices, with TaN gate electrodes, are reported. It is shown that the effect of the lanthanum, initially deposited as La2O3, on a SiO2/HfSiO(N) stack, permeates the Si/SiO2 interface. A lower midgap interface state density is observed at this interface, but increased densities are seen towards the band edges. The presence of lanthanum in the dielectric results in defects in the interface layer and in the high-kappa dielectric. A profile of defects in the gate stack is suggested, inferred from a combination of electrical measurements. From the location of the defects, it is argued that the reliability of lanthanum-incorporated devices is not compromised by its presence, thus enabling a reliable route to V-t tuning of n-type metal oxide semiconductor devices.