We show that by using two probes of different paramagnetic streng

We show that by using two probes of different paramagnetic strengths attached at the same site, the relative population and exchange time scale can be extracted, providing that the dynamic event occurs

in the second to millisecond regime. Hence, this improved PRE scheme, differentially scaled paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (DiSPRE), permits both temporal and spatial characterization of a dynamic system. When applying RG-7112 concentration the DiSPRE scheme to reassess the weak interactions between the N-terminal domain of enzyme I and phosphocarrier protein (HPr) from the bacterial phopshotransferase system, we have identified a minor species of excited-state complex with a similar to 4% population and exchanging with the stereospecific complex at ASP2215 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor similar to 1100 s(-1). Such species is distinct from other encounter complexes previously characterized and is likely a result of

promiscuity of the HPr binding interface.”
“A simple and accurate capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed to simultaneously separate and quantify heparin, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. The relative standard deviations (intra-day) of migration time, peak height and peak area for heparin, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid were lower than 1.11, 5.45 and 2.82%, respectively. The limits of detection of heparin, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid were 0.91, 0.12 and 9.04 x 10(-3) mg/mL, respectively. The developed electrophoretic method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial drug prod acts and biological samples containing chondroitin sulfate and/or hyaluronic acid. The recoveries for chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid were in the range of 95.9 similar to 107.0%. This was the first time the content of hyaluronic acid in the synovial fluids from osteoarthritic rabbits was investigated by CE. The results suggested that hyaluronic acid in the synovial

fluids from osteoarthritic rabbits may be farther metabolized and the administration of chondroitin sulfate or hyaluronic acid could affect GANT61 cost the content and metabolism of hyaluronic acid in the synovial fluids. The developed CE method was simple to implement without sample pretreatment such as depolymerisation, very repeatable and easily transferred from lab to lab.”
“In 2009, an outbreak of hepatitis B with high mortality was observed in Sabarkantha district, Gujarat state, India with 456 cases and 89 deaths. Hospitalized patients with self-limiting disease (152, AVH)) and fulminant hepatic failure (39, FHF including 27 fatal and 12 survivals) were investigated. These were screened for diagnostic markers for hepatitis viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotyping and mutant analysis. Complete HBV genomes from 22 FHF and 17 AVH cases were sequenced. Serosurveys were carried out in the most and least affected blocks for the prevalence of HBV and identification of mutants. History of injection from a physician was associated with FHF and AVH cases.


“Background: We here describe the pharmacological characte


“Background: We here describe the pharmacological characteristic, in vivo efficacy, and in vitro mechanisms of a polymer-free leflunomide eluting stent in comparison to its

rapamycin-coated equivalent.\n\nMethods: Stents were coated with 40 mM solutions of leflunomide (L) or rapamycin (R) or were left uncoated (BM). Neointima formation was assessed 6 weeks after implantation into Sprague Dawley rats by optical coherence tomographies (OCT) and histopathology. In vitro proliferation assays were performed using isolated endothelial and smooth-muscle-cells from Sprague Dawley rats ACY-738 cost to investigate the cell-specific pharmacokinetic effect of leflunomide and rapamycin.\n\nResults: HPLC-based drug release kinetics revealed a similar profile with 90% of the drug being released after 12.1 +/- 0.2 (L) and 13.0 +/- 0.2 days (R). After 6 weeks, OCTs showed that in-stent luminal obliteration was less for the coated stents (L:12.0 +/- 9.4%, R:13.3 +/- 13.1%) when compared to identical bare metal stents (BM:26.4 +/- 4.7%; p <= 0.046). Histology with computer-assisted morphometry was performed and demonstrated reduced in-stent I/M thickness ratios (L:2.5 +/- 1.2, R:3.7 +/- GM6001 ic50 3.3, BM:6.7 +/- 2.3, p <= 0.049 for L and R vs. BM) and neointimal areas (L:0.6 +/- 0.3, R:0.7 +/- 0.2, BM:1.3 +/- 0.4, p <= 0.039 for L and R vs. BM) with stent coating. No differences were found for injury and inflammation selleck scores (L and R vs.

BM; p=NS). In vitro SMC proliferation was dose-dependently and similarly inhibited by L and R at 1-100 nM (p = NS L vs.

R). Interestingly, human EC proliferation at 10-100 nM was significantly inhibited only by R (p < 0.001), but not by L (p=NS).\n\nConclusions: The diminished inhibition of EC proliferation may improve arterial healing and contribute to the safety profile of the leflunomide stent. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ac-TMP-2, an immunodominant hookworm antigen encoding a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) was cloned by immunoscreening an Ancylostoma caninum larval cDNA library with sera pooled from dogs immunized with irradiated A. caninum third stage larvae (ir-L3). The open reading frame of Ac-tmp-2 cDNA encoded a 244 amino acids (predicted molecular weight of 27.7 kDa), which shared a common N-terminus with other vertebrate and invertebrate TIMPs. including Ac-TMP-1, the most abundant adult hookworm secreted protein. However Ac-TMP-2 also contains an unusual multicopy (ten) repeat of the amino acid sequence, KTVEENDE. By immunoblotting, Ac-TMP-2 was detected only in adult hook-worms and their excretory secretory products although the corresponding mRNA was also detected in U. Immunolocalization with specific antiserum showed that native Ac-TMP-2 was located in adult worm’s esophagus and cephalic glands. Recombinant Ac-TMP-2 expressed in bacteria was highly immunogenic and recognized by ir-L3 immunized dog immune sera.

The literature highlights varied management strategies and no rec

The literature highlights varied management strategies and no recorded fatalities

with radical surgery in children selleck chemicals largely evolving from adult surgical practice. Conclusions: This study confirms that paediatric patients with ‘incidental’ NET tumours of the appendix have an excellent prognosis. Consensus guidelines should ideally be developed by paediatric oncology surgeons to avoid unnecessary radical surgery in many otherwise healthy children. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background/aims As part of the UK and Ireland study of primary IOL implantation in children under 2, active surveillance has been undertaken to identify children aged <2 years undergoing surgery for cataract. Ascertainment through active surveillance has been compared to the routine NHS capture of episodes of surgery, in order to identify any weaknesses in routine data

collection.\n\nMethods NHS information centre data on the number of children undergoing lens extraction in the first two years of life were compared to the number of cases reported through active surveillance.\n\nResults In 2009 and 2010 in the United Kingdom, 483 episodes of lens extraction in children aged <2 years with lens-related disease were reported to NHS databases, compared to 490 cases of lens extraction for congenital / infantile cataract ascertained by the BCCIG through active surveillance. There was also disparity in the coding of procedures.\n\nConclusions There is evidence of incomplete and inaccurate reporting to NHS information centres of cataract surgery in children PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor drugs aged <2 years. If the accuracy of the coding could be improved BKM120 mw then the Hospital Activity Statistics offer a reasonable approach to monitoring trends in the NHS. Nevertheless, active surveillance clinical networks remain a more robust method of case ascertainment

for research.”
“Although folic acid has been investigated for its potential to inhibit carcinogenesis, few epidemiologic studies have assessed the effects of intake of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, which may reduce cancer risk by acting as cofactors in folate metabolism or by other mechanisms. Using data from a large cohort of Canadian women, we examined the association of dietary intake of these nutrients, as well as intake of folate, methionine, and alcohol, with cancers of the breast, endometrium, ovary, colorectum, and lung ascertained during an average of 16.4 years of follow-up. After exclusions, the following numbers of incident cases were available for analysis: breast, n = 2491; endometrium, n = 426; ovary, n = 264; colorectum, n = 617; and lung, n = 358. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk of each cancer with individual nutrients and to explore possible effect modification by combinations of nutrients on cancer risk. Few significant associations of intake of individual B vitamins with the five cancers were observed.

However, late decrease in FDG uptake after completion of neoadjuv

However, late decrease in FDG uptake after completion of neoadjuvant therapy was predictive for pathological response and survival in only 2 of 6 Cyclopamine studies.\n\nConclusions. Measuring decrease in FDG uptake early during neoadjuvant therapy is most appealing, moreover because the observed range of values expressed as relative decrease to discriminate responding from nonresponding patients is very small. At present inter-institutional

comparison of results is difficult because several different normalization factors for FDG uptake are in use. Therefore, more research focusing on standardization of protocols and inter-institutional differences should be performed, before a PET-guided algorithm can be universally advocated.”
“Pathological laughter and crying (PLC) has been widely documented in the medical literature in association with various pathological

processes in the brainstem, particularly infarction. However, it remains poorly understood. The authors present a case report and analyze all the cases in the literature to try to localize a putative faciorespiratory GSK2879552 center. This 13-year-old girl developed a pontine abscess subsequent to sphenoid sinusitis. This increased in size despite antibiotic treatment, and she developed PLC. The abscess was then stereotactically aspirated, with resolution of the symptoms.\n\nA PubMed search of the term “pathological laughter and crying” was performed. From these papers all reported cases of PLC were identified. Cases without neuroimaging Prexasertib purchase were excluded. The remaining cases were categorized as small lesions permitting accurate localization within the pons, or large nonlocalizing lesions. All images of localizing lesions were magnified to the same size and placed on a grid. From this an area of maximal overlap was identified. The authors identified 7 cases of small localizing lesions with adequate imaging. The area of maximal overlap was in the region of the anterior paramedian pons. All the lesions involved this region of the pons. There were 28 further reports of large lesions that either resulted in gross compressive

distortion of the pons or diffusely infiltrated it, and thus, although implicating involvement of a pontine center, did not allow for localization of a specific region of the pons.\n\nThe authors report a case of PLC caused by a pontine abscess. Symptoms were reversible with stereotactically assisted aspiration and antibiotic administration. Analysis of the lesions reported in the literature showed a pattern toward a regulatory center in the pons. The most consistently involved region was in the anterior paramedian pons, and this may be the site of a faciorespiratory center. (DOI: 10.3171/2011.8.PEDS11265)”
“Advanced cancer patients are managed by palliative care and its main aim is to provide best possible quality of life to the patients by symptom management.

Specifically, CD91 is phosphorylated in response to HSPs in a uni

Specifically, CD91 is phosphorylated in response to HSPs in a unique pattern and phospho-CD91 triggers signalling

cascades to activate nuclear factor-kappa B. Each HSP-CD91 interaction on APCs stimulates a unique cytokine profile, which dictates priming of specific Th cell subsets. Thus, in a transforming growth factor-beta tumour microenvironment, immunization with CRT, but not gp96 or hsp70, primes Th17-cell responses in a CD91-dependent manner. These results are important for development of T-cell responses in situ in tumour-bearing hosts and for vaccination against cancer and infectious disease.”
“Previous this website studies demonstrated that chemotherapy-induced changes in tumor glucose metabolism measured with F-18-FDG PET identify patients who benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and those who do not. The prognosis for chemotherapy metabolic nonresponders is poorer than for metabolic responders. Therefore, we initiated this prospective trial to improve the clinical outcome of metabolic nonresponders using a salvage neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. VX-770 datasheet Methods: Fifty-six patients

with locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction were included. Tumor glucose uptake was assessed by F-18-FDG PET before chemotherapy and 14 d after initiation of chemotherapy. PET nonresponders received salvage neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, whereas metabolic responders received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for 3 mo before surgery. Results: Thirty-three patients were metabolic responders, and 23 were nonresponders. Resection was performed on 54 patients. R0 resection rate was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66%-91%) in metabolic responders and 70% (95% CI, 49%-84%) in metabolic nonresponders (P = 0.51). Major histologic remissions were observed in 12 metabolic responders (36%; 95% CI, 22%-53%) and 6 nonresponders LY2606368 (26%; 95% CI, 13%-46%). One-year progression-free rate was 74% +/- 8% in PET responders and 57% +/- 10% in metabolic nonresponders (log rank test, P = 0.035). One-year overall survival was comparable between the

groups (similar to 80%), and 2-y overall survival was estimated to be 71% +/- 8% in metabolic responders and 42% +/- 11% in PET nonresponders (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.87-4.24; P = 0.10). Conclusion: This prospective study showed the feasibility of a PET-guided treatment algorithm. However, by comparing the groups of nonresponding patients in the current trial and the previous published MUNICON (Metabolic response evalUatioN for Individualisation of neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Esophageal and esophagogastric adeNocarcinoma) I trial, increased histopathologic response was observed after salvage radiochemotherapy, but the primary endpoint of the study to increase the R0 resection rate was not met. The prognosis of the subgroup of PET nonresponders remains poor, indicating their different tumor biology.

We studied 16 bacterial and archaeal

We studied 16 bacterial and archaeal SB202190 phyla, representing a dataset of 12,000

gene families distributed in 336 genomes. Our results show that, in most phyla, LGT provides an abundant phylogenetic signal on the pattern of species diversification and that this signal is robust to the choice of gene families under study. We also find that LGT brings an abundant signal on the location of the root of species trees, which has been previously overlooked. Our results quantify the great variety of gene transfer rates among lineages of the tree of life and provide strong support for the “complexity hypothesis,” which states that genes whose products participate to macromolecular protein complexes are relatively resistant to transfer.”
“Through a

prospective comparison of patients with vertebral fractures and normal population, we selleck products illustrate effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) upon projection of load distribution changes.\n\nVertebroplasty group (36 symptomatic patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures) was evaluated on an electronic baropodometer registering projection of weight bearing areas on feet. Load distribution between right and left foot (including rear-front of the same foot) during standing and walking was recorded and compared before (group V1) and the day after (group V2) PV. Control group (30 healthy asymptomatic volunteers-no surgery record) were evaluated on the same baropodometer.\n\nMean value of load distribution difference between rear-front of the same foot was 9.45 +/- A 6.79 % (54.72-45.28 %) upon standing and 14.76 +/- A 7.09

% (57.38-42.62 %) upon walking in the control group. Respective load distribution values before PV were 16.52 +/- A 11.23 and 30.91 +/- A 19.26 % and after PV were 10.08 +/- A 6.26 and 14.25 +/- A 7.68 % upon standing and walking Galardin in vivo respectively. Mean value of load distribution variation between the two feet was 6.36 and 14.6 % before and 4.62 and 10.4 % after PV upon standing and walking respectively. Comparison of load distribution variation (group V1-V2, group V1-control group) is statistically significant. Comparison of load distribution variation (group V2-control group) is not statistically significant. Comparison of load distribution variation among the two feet is statistically significant during walking but not statistically significant during standing.\n\nThere is a statistically significant difference when comparing load distribution variation prior vertebroplasty and that of normal population. After vertebroplasty, this difference normalizes in a statistically significant way. PV is efficient on equilibrium-load distribution improvement as well.

These new therapies are reviewed in this article “
“Poly(ADP

These new therapies are reviewed in this article.”
“Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors

enhance the effect of DNA alkylating agents on BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cell lines. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the PARP inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) on breast cancer cells with different BRCA1 expression or function, such as BRCA1-deficient MDA-MB-436 cells, low expression BRCA1 MCF-7 cells, and the BRCA1 wild-type MDA-MB-231 cells, to demonstrate its effects as a chemo- or radiosensitizing agent. PARP activity was analyzed in MDA-MB-436, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells subjected or this website not to NAM. Inhibition of PARP by NAM in the presence of DNA damage was examined by Alexa Fluor 488 immunofluorescence. Crystal violet assays were used to test growth inhibition and the chemo- and radiosensitization effects of NAM were investigated using clonogenic assays. Significant differences among data sets were determined using two-tailed ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. We demonstrated that NAM reduces PARP activity in vitro, and in cells subjected or

not to DNA damage, it also reduces the viability of breast cancer cell lines and synergyzes the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in MDA-MB-436 and MCF-7 cells. Downregulation EPZ004777 purchase of PARP1 with siRNA led to modest growth inhibition, which was further increased by cisplatin. Nicotinamide also induced radiosensitization in MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, NAM may be used as a chemo- or radiosensitizing agent regardless of the BRCA1 status in breast cancer.”
“BACKGROUND: Temporal artery biopsy (TAB) is frequently used to guide treatment for suspected temporal arteritis.

Our purpose was to determine the influence on subsequent temporal arteritis treatment, particularly the initiation, termination, or continuation of corticosteroids after a histologically negative TAB. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis from a single regional referral center on all patients undergoing TAB March 2003 through November 2010. Demographic, clinical, and surgical informations were recorded including changes in treatment based on biopsy results. RESULTS: In all, 237 Dorsomorphin mw patients had complete documentation for review; the average age was 71 years (range 34 to 94) and 56% were women. Thirty-six patients had 42 positive biopsies; 26 biopsies were bilateral. Positive biopsy results were defined as having marked intimal thickening, transmural inflammation, and “giant cells.” Neither length of biopsy specimen nor preoperative steroid use affected pathologic diagnosis (2.41 vs 2.38 cm, P = .46, and 52% vs 50%, P = .8, respectively). Symptoms included new-onset headache (75%), preauricular tenderness and jaw claudication (32%), erythrocyte sedimentation rate greater than 50 mm/h (60%), and a score of 3 or more using the American College of Rheumatology criteria (56%).

The progress of the clinical characteristics, the reasons for rad

The progress of the clinical characteristics, the reasons for radiation-induced see more carcinogenesis, the treatment options and the prognostic factors

of MFH are also reviewed. Finally, the importance of prevention and follow-up of this malignancy are highlighted and specific advice is offered.”
“The “Collaborative work between the West and Asia” session was chaired by Dr Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr Gavin Bart (Collaborative addiction research in the United States and Asia), Dr Li Li (Implementing intervention research projects in Asia), and Dr Le Minh Giang (Building research infrastructure for international collaborative studies on substance PRIMA-1MET cost use disorder and HIV: The case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam). Copyright (C) 2013, Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“The present case study work is carried out on a typical steel industry in selection of the

optimum amount of chemicals dosage used in DAF unit to remove oil and grease. Neural models are developed between DAF unit variables, i.e., the amount of chemical, the pH, and the amount of oil in the effluent. The amount of alum and polyelectrolyte are considered as independent whereas pH and amount of oil present in outlet stream are accounted as dependent variables. These input and output data are analyzed using ANN

and GMDH method, which reduces the cost of the chemical/day-shift by 10.5% and 21.85%, respectively.”
“Little selleck inhibitor is known about the cytokeratin (CK) expressions in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The aim is to explore the CK expression in GM using immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC study in 30 cases (median = 68 years, SE = 12.6) of GBM in brain. CK expression using AE1/3 antidody was seen in 29/30 (97 %) cases. There were no expressions of CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK 18, CK19, and CK20. Expression of p53 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were recognized in all 30 cases (100 %). All cases showed Ki-67 antigen labeling, index of which ranged from 6 to 43 % (m +/- SD = 24 + 16). The IHC using CKAE1/3 in GBM very frequently shows positive reaction. The expression may cause difficulty in pathologic diagnosis in GBM, particularly in discrimination between GBM and metastatic carcinoma. The CK positivity in GM may be due to CK molecules other than CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK18, CK19 and CK20. GBM frequently expression p53 and high Ki-67 labeling.”
“Methyl paraben (MP) is often used as a preservative in foods, drugs, and cosmetics because of its high reliability in safety based on the rapid excretion and nonaccumulation following administration.

Direct tests of the effects of egg load on glassy-winged sharpsho

Direct tests of the effects of egg load on glassy-winged sharpshooter oviposition behavior found that females were more likely to deposit eggs as egg load increased. Similarly, acceptance of a low-ranked oviposition plant species

by female glassy-winged sharpshooters increased with egg load and time since last oviposition. The results indicate that adult feeding affected glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation, plant species varied VX-680 inhibitor in quality for providing nutrients for egg maturation, and egg load affected oviposition behavior. Thus, the quantity and quality of available feeding plant species may affect glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation rates, which in turn may affect the plant species female glassy-winged sharpshooters select for oviposition.”
“AimTo investigate hormonal dynamics in a group

of non-obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients under myo-inositol (MYO) administration. MethodsHormonal profiles, insulin response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and luteinizing hormone (LH) response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test this website before and after the administration of a preparation of MYO (3g p.o. daily) mixed with lactoferrin and bromelin, in a group (n=24) of normal weight PCOS patients. ResultsAfter the treatment interval, body mass index (BMI) did not change while LH, LH/follicle-stimulating hormone, 17-hydroxy-progesterone and androstenedione decreased significantly. Insulin response to OGTT was significantly reduced after the treatment interval (P smaller than 0.05) as well as GnRH-induced LH response (P smaller than 0.05). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased significantly after the treatment interval. ConclusionMYO administration positively modulates insulin sensitivity in non-obese PCOS patients

JIB-04 order without compensatory hyperinsulinemia, improving hormonal parameters. The presence of bromelin in the formulation modulated the pro-inflammatory state that characterizes PCOS, independently of BMI.”
“BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been used to successfully promote spine fusion, but side-effects including nerve inflammation have been observed. PURPOSE: To investigate the direct neurotoxic effects of BMP-2 and test the hypotheses that the use of BMP binding proteins, such as secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24), can reduce or eliminate these effects. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro experiments and in vivo analysis in a rodent model. METHODS: In vitro, dorsal root ganglion cells were cultured in the presence of BMP-2 with and without Spp24 and calcitonin gene-related peptide and Substance P, markers of neuroinflammation, were measured by immunohistochemistry.


“Eudragit E (EE)-sodium alginate (SA) polyelectrolyte comp


“Eudragit E (EE)-sodium alginate (SA) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were prepared at pH 4 and 5.8 using sodium alginate of high (SAH) and low viscosity (SAL). The optimum EE-SA complexation mass ratio was determined using viscosity measurements. Interactions between EE and Panobinostat mw SA in PECs were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl) tablets were prepared using the prepared EE-SA PECs and their physical mixtures at different

ratios as matrices. Tablets were evaluated for swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Tablets containing EE-SAH physical mixtures of ratios (1.5:1 and 1:3) as matrices were effective in achieving sustained release of DTZ HCl, where the percent drug released was significantly (p smaller than 0.05) decreased compared to that from tablets either containing the same ratios of EE-SAL physical mixtures or the preformed EE-SAH

and EE-SAL PECs.”
“AimsTo design and synthesize a library of structurally related, small molecules related to homologues of compounds produced by the plant Petiveria alliacea and determine their ability to interfere with AI-2 cell-cell communication and biofilm formation by oral bacteria. Many human diseases are associated with persistent bacterial biofilms. Oral biofilms (dental plaque) are buy HSP990 problematic as they are often associated with tooth decay, periodontal disease and systemic disorders

such as heart disease and diabetes. Methods and ResultsUsing a microplate-based approach, a bio-inspired Angiogenesis inhibitor small molecule library was screened for anti-biofilm activity against the oral species Streptococcus mutans UA159, Streptococcus sanguis 10556 and Actinomyces oris MG1. To complement the static screen, a flow-based BioFlux microfluidic system screen was also performed under conditions representative of the human oral cavity. Several compounds were found to display biofilm inhibitory activity in all three of the oral bacteria tested. These compounds were also shown to inhibit bioluminescence by Vibrio harveyi and were thus inferred to be quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. ConclusionDue to the structural similarity of these compounds to each other, and to key molecules in AI-2 biosynthetic pathways, we propose that these molecules potentially reduce biofilm formation via antagonism of QS or QS-related pathways. Significance and Impact of the StudyThis study highlights the potential for a non-antimicrobial-based strategy, focused on AI-2 cell-cell signalling, to control the development of dental plaque.