​tu-bs ​de/​; [12]] Many Roseobacter strains, including R denit

​tu-bs.​de/​; [12]]. Many Roseobacter strains, including R. denitrificans, R. litoralis, Dinoroseobacter shibae and S. pomeroyi carry plasmids of different size [13, 14]. They range from 4.3 kb to 821.7 kb and can carry up to 20% of the genome content [4]. Therefore, due to GANT61 possible incompatibilities, the choice of suitable vectors for genetic this website investigations is of enormous importance [15]. The

availability of the complete genome sequences of this important group of bacteria is a crucial prerequisite for a detailed analysis of their physiological and ecological properties. However, for systems biology approaches suitable methods allowing easy and efficient genetic manipulation of these strains are needed. Such techniques are already established for other members of the Rhodobacteraceae, including Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodobacter capsulatus [e.g. [16–18]]. However, in this context only little is known for members of the Roseobacter clade. Techniques for electroporation, transposon mutagenesis, biparental mating, gene knockout and genetic complementation were described only for Silicibacter sp. TM1040 [19, 20], S. pomeroyi [21, 22] and Sulfitobacter sp. J441 [23].

In the latter study, also lacZ reporter gene fusions were constructed for gene expression analyses. Moreover, transposon mutagenesis of Phaeobacter sp. was described [19]. However, already in 2005, the Roseobacter clade comprised a large phylogenetic diversity with 36 described species representing 17 genera [6]. In the meantime, many more species have been described, making it increasingly difficult ABT-888 purchase to obtain stable tree topologies based on 16S rRNA sequences [4]. It is well known from other bacterial groups that genetic tools developed for one genus do not work in a related genus or even in a different strain of the

same species. Therefore, we systematically determined key parameters required for successful genetic experiments in strains which cover phylogenetic groups SDHB complementary to the few already studied. We selected R. litoralis and R. denitrificans, the archetypical isolates from the Roseobacter clade whose physiologies have been studied for a long time. Moreover, Oceanibulbus indolifex, a non phototroph which is related to Sulfitobacter was selected. All three species are in the middle of the Roseobacter radiation [4]. Furthermore, we selected two species of Phaeobacter (formerly Ruegeria). Finally, D. shibae a genus which is at the base of the Roseobacter radiation, was studied in more detail. We first investigated the antibiotic susceptibility of the selected Roseobacter clade species to identify useful selective markers. Using these antibiotic markers, we tested transformation and conjugation methods using plasmid-DNA transfer with different classes of plasmids.

Photonics Technology Letters IEEE 1998, 10:961–963 CrossRef Compe

Photonics Technology Letters IEEE 1998, 10:961–963.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SYL carried out the electroabsorption design, fabrication, and measurements; participated in the studies of electroabsorption behavior; and drafted the manuscript. SFY conceived of the study and participated in its design and coordination.

ACYN carried out the material studies and participated in the design, studies of the electroabsorption behavior, and manuscript editing. TG participated in the device measurement. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Pitavastatin Globally, approximately 600 million tons of rice paddies is produced each year. On an average, 20% of the rice paddy is husk, giving an annual total production of 120 million tons [1]. In Vietnam, the average output of the country is 42 billion tons per year, and this country is the second largest manufacturer of rice in the world. Rice husk (RH) is an agricultural waste material that should be eliminated. The chemical composition of RH is https://www.selleckchem.com/products/lcz696.html similar to that of many common organic fibers, containing cellulose, lignin,

hemicelluloses, and silica, which is the primary component of ash. After burning, the organic composition is decomposed and rice husk ash (RHA) is obtained [1–3]. RHA is one of the most silica-rich raw materials containing about 90% to 98% silica JNK-IN-8 purchase and some amount of metallic impurities (after complete combustion) among the family of other agro-wastes [4–8]. It is important that the silica in RHA exists in the amorphous state and has high surface area [9–13]. Because of these features, silica has many applications, such as sources for synthetic adsorption materials [14–16], carriers, medical additives, fillers in composite materials, etc. [17, 18],

and demonstrates advantages when achieved at nanometer size. Silica is a polymer of silicic acid consisting of inter-linked SiO4 units in a tetrahedral fashion with the general formula SiO2. In nature, it exists as sand, glass, quartz, etc. Naturally occurring silica is crystalline, whereas synthetically obtained silica is amorphous in nature. Silica used in chemical applications is synthesized from either silicate solution Protein tyrosine phosphatase or silane reagents [19]. There are various methods to prepare silica nanoparticles. Adam et al. [20] synthesized spherical nanosilica from agricultural biomass as RH via the sol–gel method. The resulting silica particles were shown to be agglomerates with an average dimension of 15 to 91 nm. Jal et al. [21] synthesized nanosilica via the precipitation method, and the resulting nanosilica were found to have a particle size of 50 nm in dimension. However, the sol–gel technique [19, 21–23] is the most common method for silica synthesis. It involves simultaneous hydrolysis and condensation reaction.

These 102 subjects were divided

into two groups, Group 1

These 102 subjects were divided

into two groups, Group 1 (with less than 200 hours of training in the clerkship = 71 students) and Group 2 (those with 200 or more hours of training in the clerkship = 31 student) and were analyzed against each other in each of the objectives mentioned above. When Bafilomycin A1 nmr comparing the number of patients: Group 2 students took care of an average 363.8 initial evaluations, whilst Group 1 students took care of an average of 136.9, giving an absolute difference of 226.9 patients, corresponding to an increase Combretastatin A4 order of 167.5 % by Group 2. The comparison between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.001075). (Table 1) Table 1 Number of procedures versus number of hours of extra-curricular supervised activities. Number of Procedures < 200h > 200h p value History Takings in Initial Patient Care 136.905 363.800 0.001075 Non-cast immobilizations 19.360 63.577 0.005303793 Cast immobilizations 32.811 102.160 0.000295235 Simple sutures 33.980 96.200 0.000032826369841 Donatti sutures 5.283 12.214 0.019836 Trauma Resuscitation Room visits 2.804 21.036 0.000045965 Under the guidance and supervision of ED doctors, medical students have the ability to request imaging to those patients

requiring further selleck products investigation. Students are then requested to follow-up the results afterwards, with the attending physician. Evaluation of the student radiographs revealed that Group 1 students requested an average of 152.6 radiographs while Group 2 students requested an average of 335.500 radiographs, an absolute increase of 182.8 examinations which represents a 119.7% increase for Group 2. When comparing the numbers of radiographs requested with the numbers of

radiographs followed up with the attending/radiologist, Group 1 had an average of 44.8 radiographs followed Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase up and Group 2 had an average of 167.4 followed up/evaluated (giving a difference of 122.6 – an increase of 273.8%). (p = 0.000128 for Group 1)( p = 0.012034 for Group 2). (Figure 1) Figure 1 Number of Radiographs Requests vs number of Radiographs evaluation/follow-up. Rose: Group 1 requests. Light-Blue: Group 1 evaluations/follow-ups. Red: Group 2 requests. Dark-Blue: Group 2 evaluations/follow-ups. The results comparing the orthopedic immobilization procedures were divided into plastered and non-plastered. Regarding non-plaster immobilizations, it was observed that students in the Group 1 on average performed 19.3 procedures and Group 2 students performed on average 63.5 procedures (resulting in an increase of 44.2 immobilizations for Group 2, that represents a 229% increase – p value = 0.0053). In addition to this, for plaster immobilizations, Group 1 students on average performed 32.8 procedures compared to an average of 102.1 procedures by Group 2. This represents an increase of 69.3 procedures (211.2% more plaster immobilization) for Group 2 (p = 0, 00029).

During infection, the nanAB operon was found to be upregulated in

During infection, the nanAB operon was found to be upregulated in pneumonia and meningitis compared to growth in blood [24, 25]. Much less information is available on the nanC operon, except for the analysis of the enzymatic function of the sialidase NanC [20] and its recent implication as an alternative system for

the uptake of sialic acid [23]. The present work aims at performing a functional analysis of the operon in order to gain further insight into the metabolic regulation of this locus. Results The NanAB locus conservation in oral streptococci As a first approach selleck chemicals llc to elucidate the metabolic relevance and regulation of the different predicted VS-4718 transcriptional units of the nanAB regulon, we performed a genomic comparison amongst related streptococcal species, including pneumococcal strain G54, S. mitis B6, S. oralis Uo5, S. sanguis Autophagy inhibitor cell line SK36 and S. gordonii V288 (Figure 1A and Table 1). With respect to S. pneumoniae G54, S. mitis B6 and S. oralis Uo5, these showed an identical organization for part of the locus including the neuraminidase

A (nanA), the orthologs of the satABC transporter SPG1589-91 and the genomic regions encoding the transcriptional regulator and orthologues of the enzymes involved in the first steps of sialic acid metabolism, i.e. N-acetylneuraminate lyase and N-acetylmannosamine kinase (Figure 1). In contrast to pneumococci these two species, S. mitis and S. oralis, did not possess the sialidase NanB, the second ABC transporter SPG1596-8, and the PTS system. In contrast to S. mitis and S. oralis, S. Loperamide gordonii V288 and S. sanguinis SK36 did not possess any neuraminidases. Interestingly both S. gordonii and S. sanguis still possess orthologs of the N-acetylneuraminate lyase, N-acetylmannosamine kinase and N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase predicted to be necessary for metabolism of sialic acid (Figure 1A,B; Table 1). In addition, S. gordonii and S. sanguis possessed the transcriptional regulator

and the orthologs of the pneumococcal SPG1596-8 ABC transporter. In contrast to S. pneumoniae, S. gordonii and S. sanguis possess neither the PTS system nor the SPG1589-91 satABC transporter. To check the amino sugar metabolism of these three different species of streptococci growth curves and fermentation assay on NeuNAc and ManNAc were performed. The growth curves show that S. gordonii grows only in presence of ManNAc, while S. mitis and S. pneumoniae are capable of growth on both amino sugars (Figure 2A,C). Similarly in the fermentation assay only S. gordonii acidified efficiently the medium in presence of ManNAc, while both S. pneumoniae and S. mitis metabolised efficiently only NeuNAc, with some acidification of the medium with ManNAc by the pneumococcus (Figure 2D). Figure 1 Structure of the neuraminidase locus in different streptococci. A. The schematic maps of the nanAB operon of S. pneumoniae G54 and the orthologous locus in its close relatives, including S.

E coli is among the most prevalent causes of hospital-acquired a

E. coli is among the most prevalent causes of hospital-acquired and community-acquired bacterial infections and their resistances to antimicrobial agents have become a serious concern for healthcare providers [5]. Phylogenetic analyses have classified E. coli into four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D). Commensal isolates belong mainly to A and B1 groups whereas virulent extra-intestinal pathogenic

E. coli (ExPEC) are essentially from the B2 and D groups [12, 13]. ExPEC harbor numerous virulence factors including α-hemolysin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, adhesins and iron acquisition systems [12]. The spread of bla CTX-M-15 has been mainly associated with the dissemination of a particular clone of E. coli ST131 belonging to phylogenetic check details group B2 [14, 15]. Recently, an E. coli clone O25 ST131, producing CTX-M-15, with high virulence potential and belonging to the B2 group, has been reported and represent a

major public health problem [14, 15]. Many reports have documented the emergence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae[16–18]. In Antananarivo, ESBLs were first detected in 2005 from UTI in 9.7% of isolated Enterobacteriaceae[19]. In 2006, outbreaks of CTX-M-15 and SHV-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates have been described in two pediatric units [20]. More recently, 21.3% of clinical isolates from patients in surgery and intensive care units [21] and 21.2% of intestinal carriage isolates from children hospitalized in a pediatric department of a large teaching hospital [22] were ESBL-producers. For 49 Vorinostat manufacturer multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Antananarivo, we characterized: i) the genes encoding the ESBLs; ii) the drug resistance genes associated with the ESBL genes; iii) gene cassettes present in the isolates; and iv) the plasmid incompatibility groups of the isolates. We also

determined the phylogenetic groups and virulence factors of the E. coli isolates. Methods Ethical clearance The study Phloretin protocols were approved by the National Ethics Committee of Madagascar. Written informed consents were obtained from all patients and at least one parent of each child before enrollment. Patients Between September 2006 and December 2007, a total of 909 non-duplicate bacterial isolates were obtained from 909 patients. 830 patients were recruited from several wards in four hospitals in Antananarivo, Madagascar (two national university teaching hospitals: Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona Hospital and Befelatanana Hospital; a military hospital: Metabolism inhibitor Soavinandriana Hospital; and a pediatric hospital: Tsaralalana Hospital) and 79 patients referred to the Pasteur Institute Medical Laboratory in Antananarivo. Laboratory methods Various clinical specimens (including blood-culture, urine, pus, sputum and CSF) were collected and submitted for bacterial analysis at the Pasteur Institute Medical Laboratory in Antananarivo.

For each reaction, 0 5 μl of IAC forward and reverse primers (100

For each reaction, 0.5 μl of IAC forward and reverse primers (100 μM), 0.25 μl of IAC-probe (10 μM), and 1 μl of diluted pUC19 DNA (1.8 × 104 copies) were added to the regular qPCR reaction mixture components as described above to reach the final reaction volume of 25 μl. qPCR was performed using the same conditions as described above. Sensitivity test and detection

limit of the qPCR assay A Salmonella Enteritidis (SARB16) culture was grown at 37°C to mid-exponential phase (OD600 = 0.5), and was divided into two aliquots. GSK690693 price One aliquot was boiled for 10 min in a water bath to produce heat-killed cells; the other aliquot was used for live cells. The absence of live cells from the heat-killed cells was confirmed by plating the cells onto LB agar plates. The live and heat-killed aliquots were serially 10-fold diluted from 3 × 10° to 3 × 107 CFU/ml with LB medium. Both the live and heat-killed cells suspensions were equally divided to make four sets of cell suspensions. One set of the live cell suspensions was treated

with PMA and the other set was left untreated. Subsequently, standard curves were www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-680(MK-0457).html generated side by side for PMA-treated cells and untreated cells in the qPCR assay (Figure 1A). Likewise, PMA-treated or untreated dead cell suspensions were also subjected to qPCR analysis for generation of standard curves (Figure 1B). Inclusivity and exclusivity tests A large number Milciclib research buy (n = 167) of Salmonella strains, including strain from FDA collections and recent outbreak isolates (Additional Farnesyltransferase file 1: Table S1; Table 2), were used in inclusivity study. Salmonella strains from the SARA and SARB collections and other groups. E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 STEC strains, Shigella, and other pathogenic strains were used for exclusivity test (Table 2). DNA samples were prepared from the cultures of strains (Additional file 1: Table S1; Table 2) grown overnight at 37°C with a Wizard Plus Minipreps DNA Purification System Kit (Promega, Madison, WI). DNA concentration was adjusted to 20 pg/μl with water and 100 pg

(5 μl) of DNA was used for the inclusivity and exclusivity studies in qPCR, and 5 μl of water was used as a no-template-control. Preparation of mixtures of live and dead cells for PMA-qPCR Salmonella Enteriditis SARB 16, grown at 37°C to mid-exponential phase (OD600 = 0.5), was divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was boiled for 10 min in a water bath for heat-killed cells; the other was not boiled to represent corresponding live for live cells. The absence of live cells from the heat-killed cells was confirmed by plating the cells onto LB agar plates. Both the live and the heat-killed aliquots were diluted (10 fold) to 3 × 101 to 3 × 107 CFU/ml with LB medium and equally divided to make four sets of cell suspensions.

CrossRef

CrossRefPubMed 26. Pinto FR, Melo-Cristino J, Ramirez M: A confidence interval for the wallace coefficient of concordance and its application to microbial typing methods. PLoS ONE 2008, 3:e3696.CrossRefPubMed

27. Carrico JA, Silva-Costa C, Melo-Cristino J, Pinto FR, de Lencastre H, Almeida JS, Ramirez M: Illustration of Captisol datasheet a common framework for relating multiple typing methods by application to macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes. J Clin Microbiol 2006, 44:2524–2532.CrossRefPubMed 28. Feil EJ, Enright MC, Spratt BG: Estimating the relative contributions of mutation and recombination to clonal diversification: a comparison between Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Res Microbiol 2000, 151:465–469.CrossRefPubMed 29. Feil EJ, Li BC, Aanensen

DM, Hanage WP, Spratt BG: eBURST: inferring patterns of evolutionary descent among clusters of related bacterial genotypes from multilocus sequence typing data. J Bacteriol 2004, 186:1518–1530.CrossRefPubMed 30. Serrano I, Melo-Cristino J, Carrico JA, Ramirez M: Characterization of the genetic lineages responsible for pneumococcal invasive disease in Portugal. J Clin Microbiol 2005, 43:1706–1715.CrossRefPubMed 31. Bergmann C, Chi F, Rachid S, Hakenbeck R: Mechanisms for penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae : penicillin binding proteins, gene transfer and cell wall metabolism. The pneumococcus (Edited by: buy Nepicastat Toumanen EI, Mitchell TJ, Morrison DA, Spratt BG). Washington, D.C.: ASM Press 2004, 339–349. 32. Canchaya C, Fournous G, Chibani-Chennoufi S, Dillmann ML, Brussow H: Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer. Curr Opin Microbiol check details 2003, 6:417–424.CrossRefPubMed 33. Ubukata K, Konno M, Fujii R: Transduction of drug resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, macrolides, lincomycin Metalloexopeptidase and clindamycin with phages induced from Streptococcus

pyogenes. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1975, 28:681–688. 34. Jeltsch A: Maintenance of species identity and controlling speciation of bacteria: a new function for restriction/modification systems? Gene 2003, 317:13–16.CrossRefPubMed 35. Lacks SA, Mannarelli BM, Springhorn SS, Greenberg B: Genetic basis of the complementary DpnI and DpnII restriction systems of S. pneumoniae: an intercellular cassette mechanism. Cell 1986, 46:993–1000.CrossRefPubMed 36. Fraser C, Hanage WP, Spratt BG: Neutral microepidemic evolution of bacterial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005, 102:1968–1973.CrossRefPubMed 37. Enright MC, Spratt BG: Extensive variation in the ddl gene of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae results from a hitchhiking effect driven by the penicillin-binding protein 2b gene. Mol Biol Evol 1999, 16:1687–1695.PubMed 38. Hudson RR, Slatkin M, Maddison WP: Estimation of levels of gene flow from DNA sequence data. Genetics 1992, 132:583–589.PubMed 39. Hudson RR, Boos DD, Kaplan NL: A statistical test for detecting geographic subdivision. Mol Biol Evol 1992, 9:138–151.PubMed 40.

These distances were scaled

to 2 dimensions using the mul

These distances were scaled

to 2 dimensions using the multidimensional scaling function cmdscale in R [44] these dimensions being treated as x and y coordinates. The central coordinate in x and y space was calculated using the mean of all coordinates. R428 The Euclidian distance of each strain in the cluster to the centroid was calculated by Pythagorean mathematics using the x and y coordinates from the multiple dimensional scaling calculations. Sequencing Genomic DNA from pure bacterial cultures from each of the strains was sequenced using either 454 or Illumina technologies. The strains sequenced by 454 used the titanium chemistry in conjunction with 8 kb insert libraries. Those sequenced employing the Illumina technology used 50 bp read lengths in conjunction with either a paired end or mate-paired 3 kb insert library. Several strains were sequenced using both 454 and Illumina technologies (Table  Adriamycin purchase 3). Assembly The 454 sequences were assembled using the Newbler software (version 2.5) from Roche. Default parameters were used for assembly and scaffolding. The Illumina reads were assembled using Velvet version 1.1.05 [45]. The process was optimised using the velvet optimizer script from the Victorian Bioinformatics

Consortium ( https://​github.​com/​Victorian-Bioinformatics-Consortium/​VelvetOptimiser) with a kmer range of 33 to 47. The additional options -shortMatePaired2 yes -ins_length2 2500 -ins_length2_sd 500 were specified for reads from the

3 kb mate pair libraries. Contigs were joined into Selleckchem PI3K Inhibitor Library scaffolds using the SSPACE tool [46]. Mapping and SNP calling In order to discover SNPs using a single method for Illumina reads, 454 reads or Tolmetin complete sequences from GenBank, short ‘Illumina-style’ reads were simulated from 454 assemblies and GenBank-derived genomes. This was achieved using the wgsim program from the Samtools package [47] with these parameters -e 0 -r 0 -N 3000000 -d 250–1 50–2 50. This resulted in two fastq files representing 3 million paired end reads of 50 bp with an insert size of 250 bp equivalent to the reads from the paired end libraries from the experimental Illumina sequences. Simulated or experimental Illumina reads from all strains was mapped to the genome sequence of the Corby strain using bowtie 0.12.7 [48] using the –m1 parameter to exclude reads that map in more than one place on the reference sequence and tend to cause false positives when calling SNPs. The Sequence Alignment Map from the Bowtie mapping was sorted and indexed using samtools to produce a Binary Alignment Map (BAM). Samtools mpileup was used to create a combined Variant Call Format (VCF) file using each of the BAM file. The VCF file was further parsed using a simple script to extract only SNP positions that were of the high quality in all of the genomes and write out these SNPs into a multiple FASTA format file.

To this end, the activity of the cit promoters was measured in

To this end, the activity of the cit promoters was measured in

a CcpA-deficient E. faecalis strain (CL14) [27] containing either the pTCV-PcitHO or the pTCV-PcitCL plasmid (strains CL1 and CL2, respectively) (Figure 1C). β-Galactosidase activity was determined in cell extracts of E. faecalis grown in LBC supplemented with the same PTS and non-PTS sugars, described in Figure 1B. As shown in Figure 1C, no small molecule library screening significant repression was observed in the presence of non-PTS sugars and PTS sugars exerted a much weaker repressive effect than in the wild-type strain. However, in these CcpA-defective E. faecalis strains the repression was not completely alleviated. A similar observation was reported for other genes controlled by the CCR in E. faecalis [27]. Subsequently, we tested whether

expression of the cit operons depends on the glucose concentration. Hence, we measured the β-galactosidase activity in wild-type and ccpA mutant strains carrying either one of the two transcriptional cit promoter-lacZ fusions. In the wild-type-derived strains (JHB2 and JHB6) β-galactosidase activity decreased when the initial concentration of glucose was raised from 0.25 to 1% (Figure 2A). On the other hand, in the CcpA-deficient strains (CL1 and CL2) activity of the cit promoters was independent of the glucose concentration (Figure 2B). These results suggest that the activity of the cit promoters is tightly regulated by the availability of glucose and that the pleiotropic transcriptional factor CcpA is involved in this process. Figure find more 2 Effect of glucose concentrations on the expression of cit operons, CitO levels and citrate lyase activity. A and B) JHB2 (JH2-2/pTCV-PcitHO), JHB6 (JH2-2/pTCV-PcitCL), CL1 (CL14/pTCV-PcitHO) and CL2 strains (CL14/pTCV-PcitCL) were grown in LBC (circle) or LBC supplemented with different initial concentrations of glucose: 0.25% (square),

0.5% (up-pointing triangle) and 1% (down-pointing triangle). Gemcitabine supplier The corresponding open symbols indicate the remaining glucose concentration in the culture medium (right axis). Levels of accumulated β-galactosidase activity were measured at different times as indicated in the figure. C and D) E. faecalis strains were grown in the same conditions of panels A and B, and cells extracts were obtained 7 h after inoculation, C) Western blot analysis was performed with polyclonal antibodies raised against CitO. D) Citrate lyase activity was determined as described previously [5]. Error bars represent standard deviation of triplicate measurements. In order to determine whether these differences in transcriptional repression affect the level of the proteins encoded by the cit operons, the amounts of CitO and citrate lyase activity were determined. First, a Western blot using antibodies raised against check details purified CitO was performed with extracts of wild type E. faecalis JH2-2 grown during 7 hs in LBC supplemented with different initial concentrations of glucose (0.25%, 0.5% or 1%).

8 Bondi SK, Goldberg JB: Strategies toward vaccines against Burk

8. Bondi SK, Goldberg JB: Strategies toward vaccines against Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Expert Rev Vaccines 2008,7(9):1357–1365.PubMedCrossRef 9. Galyov EE, Brett PJ, Deshazer D: Molecular Insights into Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei Pathogenesis. Annu Rev HDAC inhibitor Microbiol 2010, 64:495–517.PubMedCrossRef 10. DeShazer D, Brett PJ,

Woods DE: The type II O-antigenic polysaccharide moiety of Burkholderia pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide is required for serum resistance and virulence. Mol Microbiol 1998,30(5):1081–1100.PubMedCrossRef selleck screening library 11. Egan AM, Gordon DL:

Burkholderia pseudomallei activates complement and is ingested but not killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infect Immun 1996,64(12):4952–4959.PubMed 12. Reckseidler-Zenteno SL, DeVinney R, Woods DE: The capsular polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei contributes to survival in serum by reducing complement factor C3b deposition. Infect Immun 2005,73(2):1106–1115.PubMedCrossRef 13. Jones AL, DeShazer D, Woods DE: Identification and AG-881 characterization of a two-component regulatory system involved in invasion of eukaryotic cells and heavy-metal resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei. Infect Immun 1997,65(12):4972–4977.PubMed 14. Jones AL, Beveridge TJ, Woods DE: Intracellular survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

Infect Immun 1996,64(3):782–790.PubMed 15. Burtnick MN, Woods DE: Isolation of polymyxin B-susceptible mutants of Burkholderia pseudomallei and molecular characterization of genetic loci involved in polymyxin B resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999,43(11):2648–2656.PubMed 16. Stevens JM, Ulrich RL, Taylor LA, Wood MW, Deshazer D, Stevens MP, Galyov EE: Actin-binding proteins from Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia thailandensis can functionally compensate for the actin-based motility BCKDHA defect of a Burkholderia pseudomallei bimA mutant. J Bacteriol 2005,187(22):7857–7862.PubMedCrossRef 17. Stevens MP, Stevens JM, Jeng RL, Taylor LA, Wood MW, Hawes P, Monaghan P, Welch MD, Galyov EE: Identification of a bacterial factor required for actin-based motility of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Mol Microbiol 2005,56(1):40–53.PubMedCrossRef 18. Stevens MP, Galyov EE: Exploitation of host cells by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Int J Med Microbiol 2004,293(7–8):549–555.PubMedCrossRef 19.