“Endothelial injury is the primary event that leads to a variety of severe vascular disorders. Mechanical injury elicits a Ca(2+) response in the endothelium of excised rat aorta, which comprises an initial Ca(2+) release from
inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))-sensitive stores followed by a long-lasting decay phase due to Ca(2+) entry through uncoupled connexons. The Ca(2+) signal may also adopt an oscillatory pattern, the molecular underpinnings of which are unclear. In the light of the role played by Ca(2+) spiking in tissue regeneration, this study aimed to unveil the mechanisms underlying injury-induced Ca(2+) oscillations. The latter reversibly ceased upon removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or addition of the gap junction blockers heptanol, 18 alpha,beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, La(3+) and Ni(2+), but were insensitive to BTP-2 and SKF 96365. The spiking check details response was abolished by inhibiting the Ca’ entry mode of the Na(+)/Ca(+) exchanger (NCX). The InsP(3)-producing agonist ATP resumed Ca(2+) oscillations in silent cells, while the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 suppressed them. Injury-induced Ca(2+) transients were prevented by the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) blockers thapsigargin
and cyclopiazonic acid, while they were unaffected by suramin and genistein. These data show for the first time that the coordinated interplay between NCX-mediated Ca(2+) entry and InsP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release contributes to injury-induced ABT-263 mouse intracellular Ca(2+) concentration oscillations. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Several studies demonstrated that depressed
patients had low serum BDNF levels which correlated with Selleckchem Idelalisib the severity of their depression, and antidepressant treatment increases levels of serum BDNF in depressed patients. It was speculated that agents acting on both noradrenergic and serotonergic transporters might have a greater influence on BDNF levels. The aim of our study was to determine effects of venlafaxine vs. fluoxetine on serum BDNF levels in depressive patients.
Methods: Forty-three patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV are included in the study. Forty-three patients were randomized to take fluoxetine (22 cases) or venlafaxine (21 cases). Serum levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA at baseline and 6 weeks after the start of treatment.
Results: Baseline levels of BDNF were not significantly different between the patient group and the controls. But male patients and the male controls showed statistical differences with respect to baseline BDNF levels. BDNF levels of the patient group did not change with treatment. Yet, the increase of BDNF levels was close to statistically significant in the fluoxetine group, whereas not significant in the venlafaxine group. There were no significant differences in baseline and 6th week BDNF levels between the responders and the non-responders.