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39. Speicher KD, Kolbas O, Harper S, Speicher DW: Systematic analysis of peptide recoveries from in-gel digestions for protein identifications in proteome studies. J Biomol Tech JBT 2000, 11:74–86. 40. Granvogl B, Plöscher M, Eichacker LA: Sample preparation by in-gel digestion for mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Anal Bioanal Chem 2007, 389:991–1002.PubMedCrossRef selleck chemical 41. Perkins DN, Pappin DJ, Creasy DM, Cottrell JS: Probability-based protein identification by searching sequence databases using mass spectrometry data. Electrophoresis 1999, 20:3551–3567.PubMedCrossRef 42. Artimo P, Jonnalagedda M, Arnold K, Baratin D, Csardi G, de Castro E, Duvaud S, Flegel V, Fortier A, Gasteiger E, Grosdidier A, Hernandez C, Ioannidis V, Kuznetsov D, Liechti R, Moretti S, Mostaguir K, Redaschi N, Rossier G, Xenarios I, Stockinger H: ExPASy: SIB bioinformatics resource portal. Nucleic Acids Res 2012, 40:W597-W603.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef

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FSL: Pseudomonas Genome Database: improved comparative analysis and population genomics capability for Pseudomonas genomes. Nucleic Acids Res 2011, 39:D596-D600.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Competing interests All authors of the study (SK, ASr, DP, ASt and MU) declare that there are no competing interests (whether political, personal, religious, ideological, academic, intellectual or commercial) or any other activities influencing the work. Authors’ contributions SK generated the fusion constructs, performed the levan formation, Western blot, zymogram, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR assays; ASr determined the transcriptional start site; DP generated and analysed a fusion construct; ASt conducted the MALDI-TOF data acquisition and analysis; MU coordinated the study; SK and MU prepared and revised the manuscript draft. All authors contributed to the preparation and approval of the final manuscript.”
“Background Influenza virus infections are considered a significant public health problem given that they cause seasonal epidemics and recurring pandemics [1].

Qualitative analysis of mycotoxigenic potential in representative

Qualitative analysis of mycotoxigenic potential in representative strains of the aflatoxigenic species isolated from different regions revealed, for A. flavus, AFB1, AFB2 and CPA production in 11 evaluated strains, and AFB1 and CPA production for a further five strains. From a total of seven examined strains of A. nomius, five produced AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, one produced B1 and G1, and one produced B1, G1 and G2. CPA was not detected in A. nomius. When considering totals for each species from all growing areas analysed, aflatoxigenic species A. nomius and A. flavus were the most abundant, representing 43.1 and 42.3% of all isolated aspergilli, respectively

LY3009104 mouse (Table 1). The non aflatoxigenic species A. tamarii was observed at a lower overall frequency (13.13%). Aspergillus species which do not belong to section Flavi were also isolated, with one isolate of A. fumigatus from Amapá and one isolate of A. niger from Amazonas. When comparing A. nomius and A. flavus, although similar numbers of strains were identified in total, numbers varied considerably across regions, with A. nomius more frequent in samples from Amapá, Coari (Amazonas), see more Itacoatiara (Amazonas) and Manicoré (Amazonas), and A. flavus more

common in contaminated material from Acre and Humaitá (Amazonas). Table 1 Frequency of Aspergillus species from Brazil nut material across the Brazilian Amazon region State Number of strains isolated from Brazil nut material   A. nomius A. flavus A. fumigatus A. tamarii find more A. niger Acre 1 (5.3)* 18 (94.7) 0 0 0 Amapá 20 (95.2) 0 1 (4.8) 0 0 Amazonas             Coari 5 (83.3) 0 0 1 (16.7) 0   Humaitá Sitaxentan 7 (14.3) 40 (81.6) 0 1 (2.05) 1 (2.05)   Itacoatiara 19 (90.5) 0 0 2 (9.5) 0   Manicoré 7 (33.33) 0 0 14 (66.66) 0 Total 59 (43.1) 58 (42.3) 1 (0.73) 18 (13.13) 1 (0.73) *Values in parentheses indicate percentages for each species for each geographical region. MtDNA primer development for genus Following sequence alignment of a portion of the mtDNA SSU rRNA gene from Genbank-derived

sequences for all available Aspergillus species, specific primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 (5′-GCCATATTACTCTTGAGGTGGAA-3′) and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 (5′-CCGAAAGGCTGAACCAGTAA-3′) were designed for amplification of a 480 bp PCR product specific for the genus (Figure 1). In silico analysis of the specificity of the primer pair was based upon electronic PCR against mtDNA SSU rDNA gene sequences available at Genbank for the genus Aspergillus and fungi from additional genera previously reported on Brazil nut [29]. Positive nucleotide BLAST search results with 0% mismatch were observed against target mtDNA SSU rRNA from all available Aspergillus species, as well as teleomorphs from the genera Chaetosartorya, Emericella, Eurotium and Petromyces.

The association between variables was tested by the Pearson Chi-S

The association between variables was tested by the Pearson Chi-Square test. A paired sample t-test was used to compare the mean values of the subjective perception of risk, with the objective risk, estimated by BRCAPRO. The percentage risk of developing a tumour and of being a carrier of a genetic mutation evaluated by BRCAPRO

were compared to the percentage of perceived risk in order to assess the adequacy of the perceived risk compared to the objective risk. To make this comparison, Bluman et al. in 1999 [33] calculated the quartiles (≤ 25%, 26%-50%, 51%-75%, ≥ 76%) of both the percentage values of objective selleckchem and subjective risk and after that they make a comparison between the two values. The variable, resulting from this comparison, categorizes the subjects in overestimators, accurate estimators and underestimators. Differences between groups (“”corrected”", “”under”"

and “”over”" estimators) FRAX597 purchase with Kruskal-Wallis non parametric test were analyzed for age, number of relatives affected by cancer and for distress levels. Concordance between the subjective perception of risk and the objective risk estimated by BRCAPRO was assessed using Cohen’s k coefficient of agreement [34]. Landis and Koch proposed categories for judging K values: K less than 0.0 was considered poor, 0.00 to 0,20 was light, 0.21 to 0.40 was fair, 0.41 to 0.60 was moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 was substantial and 0.81 to 1.00 was perfect [35]. Given ratings on a K-level categorical variable, the marginal homogeneity test was used for calculated agreement between two rates summarized by a K × K cross-classification table. Given the small numbers, statistical analyses cannot be performed to assess the differences between male and female in risk perception. The SPSS (11.0) statistical program was used for the analyses. Results Description of the sample The average characteristics of the sample of 130 subjects (women/men = 119/11) are reported

in Table 2 and 3. Table 2 Descriptive results N = 130 subjects     Women/Men = 119/11       Median Range Age 47 19-77 Number of relatives affected by tumours of the breast and/or ovaries 2 0-6 Number of relatives affected by other types of tumour 4.5 0-18   Frequency % Geographical Area of Origin     Central Italy 100 77 Other areas (South-North-Abroad) 30 23 Civil Status     Single 58 44.6 Married 72 55.4 Number of children     No children 43 33.1 1 child Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK 26 20 + children 61 46.9 Education     Primary (age 5 to 14) 27 20.8 High school (age 14 to 19) 65 50 University 38 29.2 Profession     Worker 87 66.9 Unemployed 43 33.1 Eligibility     Eligible 81 62.3 Non-eligible 49 37.7 Pathology     Affected 42 32.3 Non-affected 88 67.7 Table 3 Descriptive results   Mean Range Anxiety 7.9 0-16 Depression 5.1 0-15 Cancer Risk Perception* 38.9 0-100 Genetic Risk Perception** 39.9 0-86.8 BRCA pro Cancer Risk 10.6 0-99.1 BRCA pro Genetic Risk 18.7 0.10-66.5   Frequency % Adequacy of the cancer risk perception Overestimation 65 56.9 Adequate Estimation 38 31.

Conservation, multiplication and dissemination of such trees as c

Conservation, multiplication and dissemination of such trees as components of non-orchard landscapes could result in increased fruit yields and produce a supply of valuable timber and wood products for rural

landowners (Harvey et al. 2008). Fig. 1 Aerial photo of Las Juntas on the Rio Pescados near Llano Grande, Veracruz (12° 22′ 18.64′′ N, 96° 51′ 18.98′′ W), showing fragmentation of native forest in different successional status (red polygons) and the placement of these fragments with respect to orchards (white polygons), pastures, sugar cane and other crops (light green areas, not marked with polygons). Primary and secondary forest fragments are primarily located in rough or inaccessible areas such 10058-F4 clinical trial as canyons (blue lines). The landscape is crossed by a main road (yellow

line). Source Google Earth Interactions among Tephritidae, hymenopteran parasitoids and fruit trees Some fruit flies are among the world’s most damaging agricultural insect pests (Aluja and Mangan 2008). The economically important genera are Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Rhagoletis, and Toxotrypana, all of which are represented in the subtropical and tropical regions of the Americas. Anastrepha species, the focus of our discussion, are distributed PF-01367338 chemical structure from the southern United States to northern Argentina (Hernández-Ortíz and Aluja 1993; Aluja 1994). In Latin America, many species of native plants in tropical dry and wet forests support fruit fly larvae of both economic (<5 %; 7 species) and non-economic importance (>95 %; >200 species) (Aluja et al. 2003 and references therein). In developed areas these same plants can

also be found as isolated individuals that have either survived agricultural practices or been planted as living fences or fruit or shade trees. Semi-commercial and commercial orchards in Mexico are often located near or even mixed into patches of native vegetation that include tephritid hosts, particularly if the adjacent sites, such IKBKE as canyon walls, do not lend themselves readily to cultivation (Fig. 1). Movement between wild and cultivated hosts (described in detail by Aluja and Birke 1993; Aluja and Rull 2009) is typical of several important pest fruit fly species and is important to their population survival because: (1) no single host species fruits throughout the year; and (2) pest fruit flies do not diapause and adults survive for only limited periods; thus they have no mechanism to bridge fruit-free periods (Aluja et al. 1998, 2009). Anastrepha spp. control Toxic bait sprays have been used extensively to control pest Anastrepha species (Aluja 1994; Raga and Sato 2005). But the sterile insect technique (SIT) (Reyes et al. 2000), classical biological control (Eskafi 1990; Ovruski et al. 2000) and augmentative releases of parasitoids (Sivinski et al. 1996; Montoya et al. 2000, 2007) have resulted in complete or partial control of pest tephrtid populations at certain times and places.

However, the molecular weight of x-B12 and x-B16 fragments (6 6 a

However, the molecular weight of x-B12 and x-B16 fragments (6.6 and 5.5 kb, respectively) was different from those bearing the extra IS711 copies in 2308 (x-08, 1.9 kb that also includes the 3a copy) and RB51 (x-RB51, 1.5 kb) (Figure 1). Interestingly, whereas AZD1152 Strain B51, which was isolated

from the same sample as B12, displayed the genetic profile typical of B. abortus, strains B16, B49 and B50 showed an identical profile, even though they were from successive outbreaks in the same flock (Figure 1 and Table 1). These results show that it is possible to find B. abortus field isolates with different IS711 distributions. Table 1 Brucella strains used     Genetic profile by:   Strain Relevant features RFLP IS 711 Ava I -Cla I a AMOS enhanced PCR b Reference B. abortus 544 Reference

strain of biovar 1 A A [24] B. abortus 2308 USDA challenge strain; biovar 1 B B [25] B. abortus RB51 Vaccine Compound C rough derivative from 2308 C Trichostatin A B [26] B. abortus B51 c Biovar 1; milk isolate (Río Bueno, Chile; 2004) A A This work B. abortus B12 c Biovar 1; milk isolate (Río Bueno, Chile; 2004) D A [10] B. abortus B16 d Biovar 1; aborted fetus isolate (Osorno, Chile; 2002) E A [10] B. abortus B49 d Biovar 1; aborted fetus isolate (Osorno, Chile; 2000) E A This work B. abortus B50 d Biovar 1; aborted fetus isolate (Osorno, Chile; 2004) E A This work B. ovis 23/290 B. ovis reference strain F C [24] B. ceti NCTC 12891T B. ceti type strain Np e Np [27] B. pinnipedialis Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 NCTC 12890T B. pinnipedialis type strain Np Np [27] B. abortus 2308 NalR Nalidixic acid resistant derivative of 2308 strain Np Np [21] a IS profiles are shown in Figure 1. b A, B. abortus typical pattern; B, B. abortus 2308 pattern; C, B. ovis typical pattern. c B12

and B51 were isolated from the same sample. d B16, B49 and B50 are strains isolated from different outbreaks in the same flock. e Np: Not performed Figure 1 Identification of new IS 711 copies in B. abortus B12, B16, B49 and B50 by Southern blot. The new IS711 copies found in field isolates and the additional IS711 present in 2308 and RB51 are indicated on the left. The IS711-nomenclature proposed by Ocampo-Sosa et al. (2008) and the fragment size are indicated on the right (note that x-08 fragment includes both the additional 2308 strain and 3a copies). The signals marked with an * correspond to IS other than IS711 which show cross-hybridization. Capital letters at the bottom indicate the RFLP IS711 AvaI-ClaI profile (Table 1). We characterized the insertion sites in B12 and B16 (and B49 and B50) to ascertain whether they were new or already present in other brucellae. To this end, we carried out IS-anchored PCR using IS711-bound primers plus a decamer of %GC similar to that of the Brucella genome (Table 2). The resulting amplicons ranged from 0.2-3.

4) Furthermore, more times

4). Furthermore, more times CYC202 mw treated with MNNG/PMA, more increase of acetylated histone H3 was observed. This indicated that MNNG/PMA treatment leaded to increased level of acetylated histone H3, and thus altered gene expression. Figure 4 Western blot analisis of acetylated histone H3 in IEC-6 cells. Total protein (30 μg per lane) was resolved on SDS-polyacrylamide gel and transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and incubated with anti-acetylated histone

H3 and anti-GAPDH antibodies. The bands were visualized by using the enhanced chemiluminescence system. The relative abundances of acetylated histone H3 was normalized by that of GAPDH. Lane1: normal IEC-6 cells; Lane2: IEC-6 cells treated with MNNG/PMA for 6 times; Lane2: IEC-6 cells treated with MNNG/PMA for 12 times. Discussions Substantial advances in our understanding during the past decades have led to a complete understanding of the role of both environmental and genetic factors in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. It has been well PS-341 manufacturer demonstrated that the its development and progress are associated with deregulation of many genes, as well as mutational activation of oncogenes and loss of function of tumor suppressor genes [22]. And its tumorigenesis is also a process of multistage of hit. As a multiple factor disease, complex genetic pathways are involved in

colorectal cancer. The most troublesome bewilderment is that different profile of mutant

genes leads to the same clinical phenotype. So the detailed find more molecular mechanism of colorectal cancer has not been fully understood. Many important biological processes were involved in transformation and tumorigenesis, including Aldol condensation cell cycle control, DNA damage repair, cell apoptosis and signal transduction. The rat Oligo GEArray microarray profiles the expression of 113 genes representative of the six biological pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis. It has been applied in many experiments [23, 24]. Our results showed that most of the six biological pathways were involved in transformation of IEC-6 cells. This indicated that transformation were the consequence of multiple deregulations of genes. Among the genes differentially expressed, some were also found altered in tumor by other researchers. Our experiment showed that c-fos was up-regulated greatly in transformed cells. Many experimental and clinical data indicated that c-fos expression plays a role in the progression of several types of carcinomas [25]. Increased expression of c-fos was also found to be associated with metastasising ability of metastatic colorectal cancer by cDNA macroarray analysis [26]. Another gene increased greatly in transformed IEC-6 cells was Ifna1, which played an important role in angiogenesis of tumor. Ifna1 plays a pivotal role not only in antiviral immunity but also in the surveillance of cancer development.

The effector can determine the drop of the living biomass (X) due

The effector can determine the drop of the living biomass (X) due to cell death, or the drop of the maximum specific growth rate (r). In both cases we admit that the response R can be described by means of model A1 (see Appendix and Table 1 for parametric definitions and units), where the subindex φ can take the values X and r according to the specific response considered: (1) A2. In accordance with the usual convention of a total biomass X, when X H dies at a given dose of the effector (X S being

the surviving biomass), the response R X in terms of biomass will be: (2) A3. Similarly, Pevonedistat chemical structure if the response R r in terms of the maximum specific rate is a decrease from r 0 to r in the absence of the effector, we will have: (3) The adequate formulations for an effector with stimulatory action (response with negative sign, see methodological section) are obtained in a similar way. Since the increase in cell number can only be attributed to the (-)R r response, the meaning of the (-)R X response is the increase of dry weight per cell. Thus, when biomass is estimated by means of absorbances or number of colony forming units, it is only pertinent to consider the response in terms of maximum specific rate. PD0332991 A4. Bearing in mind the preceding specification, if a total

biomass X increases up to a value X S (where X S = X +ΔX) at a given dose of effector, the response will be: (4) A5. Similarly, if the response R r of the maximum specific rate is the increase to a value r from a value r 0 in the absence of the effector (with r = r 0 + Δr), we will have: (5) B. Hypothesis concerning biomass dynamics We accept that the biomass X grows according to a conventional logistic equation, whose differential Selleckchem Tariquidar expression is [18]: (6) where r 0 is the maximum specific growth rate in the absence of the effector, and X m is the maximum biomass. In the presence of the effector, the constant r 0 turns into the variable r (which is dependent on the dose); therefore, this differential form cannot allow an analytic solution. Therefore, Isotretinoin the expression (6) will be directly used later on in the numeric solution of the system. C. Optional

hypothesis concerning the dose The dose D is commonly considered a constant: it is the initial concentration of the effector, which is a good criterion when the biomass does not vary appreciably during the exposure time. However, this approach can be doubtful if the action of the effector reduces (without cancelling) the growth rate, because in this case the ratio of available effector to biomass diminishes with time. Indeed, it is difficult to accept that in a microbial culture the initial level of effector means the same against the initial biomass as against a biomass often larger by several orders of magnitude a few hours later. In fact, these considerations are implicit when a clearly specified value of the initial biomass is required for standardizing DR assays.

Int J Oncol 17:445–451PubMed 11 Salvesen HB, Akslen LA (1999) Si

Int J Oncol 17:445–451PubMed 11. Salvesen HB, Akslen LA (1999) Significance of tumour-associated macrophages, vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombospondin-1 expression for tumour angiogenesis and prognosis in endometrial Sotrastaurin solubility dmso carcinomas. Int

J Cancer 84:538–543CrossRefPubMed 12. Etoh T, Shibuta K, Barnard GF, Kitano S, Mori M (2000) Angiogenin expression in human colorectal cancer: the role of focal macrophage infiltration. Clin Cancer Res 6:3545–3551PubMed 13. Forssell J, Oberg A, Henriksson ML et al (2007) High macrophage infiltration along the tumor front correlates with improved survival in colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res 13:1472–1479CrossRefPubMed 14. Oosterling SJ, van der Bij GJ, Meijer GA

et al (2005) Macrophages direct tumour histology and clinical outcome in a colon cancer model. J Pathol 207:147–155CrossRefPubMed 15. Krelin Y, Voronov E, Dotan S et Napabucasin chemical structure al (2007) Interleukin-1beta-driven inflammation promotes the TSA HDAC order development and invasiveness of chemical carcinogen-induced tumors. Cancer Res 67:1062–1071CrossRefPubMed 16. Apte RN, Voronov E (2008) Is interleukin-1 a good or bad ‘guy’ in tumor immunobiology and immunotherapy? Immunol Rev 222:222–241CrossRefPubMed 17. Voronov E, Shouval DS, Krelin Y et al (2003) IL-1 is required for tumor invasiveness and angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:2645–2650CrossRefPubMed 18. Vidal-Vanaclocha F, Fantuzzi G, Mendoza L et al (2000) IL-18 regulates IL-1beta-dependent

hepatic melanoma metastasis via vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:734–739CrossRefPubMed 19. Wesche H, Henzel WJ, Shillinglaw W, Li S, Cao Z (1997) SPTLC1 MyD88: an adapter that recruits IRAK to the IL-1 receptor complex. Immunity 7:837–847CrossRefPubMed 20. Rakoff-Nahoum S, Medzhitov R (2007) Regulation of spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis through the adaptor protein MyD88. Science 317:124–127CrossRefPubMed 21. Karin M (2006) Nuclear factor-kappaB in cancer development and progression. Nature 441:431–436CrossRefPubMed 22. Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF et al (2004) IKKbeta links inflammation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Cell 118:285–296CrossRefPubMed 23. Luo JL, Maeda S, Hsu LC, Yagita H, Karin M (2004) Inhibition of NF-kappaB in cancer cells converts inflammation- induced tumor growth mediated by TNFalpha to TRAIL-mediated tumor regression. Cancer Cell 6:297–305CrossRefPubMed 24. Alessi DR, James SR, Downes CP et al (1997) Characterization of a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Balpha. Curr Biol 7:261–269CrossRefPubMed 25. Vanhaesebroeck B, Alessi DR (2000) The PI3K-PDK1 connection: more than just a road to PKB. Biochem J 346(Pt 3):561–576CrossRefPubMed 26.

We have explored the humoral response of

We have explored the humoral response of Autophagy Compound Library concentration the villagers to MSP1 block2 using synthetic peptides displaying numerous sequence variants. Serological studies have included a cross-sectional study to measure point prevalence at the village level before a rainy season, a prospective study to explore the relationship between the presence of antibodies to MSP1 block2 at enrolment and protection from clinical malaria episodes during the following five months of intense transmission, and longitudinal follow up of individuals to study temporal antibody variation. This

showed evidence for family-specific responses possibly exerting a balancing selection, but gave no support to the notion of antibody selection for variant sequence alleles. Results Pfmsp1 block2 PCR genotyping: distribution of allelic families A total of 306 samples were successfully genotyped by semi-nested PCR. Overall 524 PCR fragments were generated (Table 1). There were 247, 145 and 132 fragments assigned to the K1, Mad20 and RO33 allelic families, PCI-34051 cost respectively. Based on fragment size polymorphism, 32 and 23 K1-type and Mad20-type alleles learn more could be identified [see Additional file 1]. All RO33 fragments were of the same size. The family frequencies were 47%, 28% and 25% for K1, Mad20 and RO33, respectively. The relative

proportion of the three allelic families (Figure 1) did not show significant temporal fluctuations (Pearson test, Chi2 = 14.99; p = 0.663), was not influenced by age (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.813), gender (idem, p = 0.45), β-globin type (idem, p = 0.678 for AA vs. AS; p = 0.923 AA vs. AS vs. other β-globin variants), ABO blood group (idem p = 0.688) or Rhesus blood group (idem p = 0. 390). Table 1 Number of isolates studied by calendar year of survey

and successfully genotyped for the Pfmsp1 block2 locus by nested PCR and gene sequencing     PCR genotyping Sequencing year of survey No samples studied No samples typed No alleles detected Mean No alleles detected/sample No PCR fragments sequenced 1990 23 23 46 2,00 27 1991 30 29 49 1,69 32 1992 30 29 43 1,48 33 1993 37 36 63 1,75 45 1994 35 34 54 1,59 37 1995 38 33 51 1,55 40 1996 46 38 68 1,79 48 1997 26 25 46 1,84 29 1998 52 44 76 1,73 51 1999 19 15 28 1,87 16 Figure 1 Temporal distribution of the relative proportion of the three allelic families Branched chain aminotransferase in Dielmo during 1990-99. Alleles were assigned to one of three allelic families by nested PCR. Distribution is shown by calendar year. The number of samples typed each year is shown in Table 1. Colour symbols: black: K1-types, white: Mad20-types, grey RO33 types. Note that hybrid alleles were not distinguished from the Mad20-types and are included in the Mad20 group. Many samples contained more than one Pfmsp1 block2 type. The average multiplicity of infection estimated from the number of fragments detected (estimated moi – see Methods) was 1.

He did not speak any modern language, besides German (and some En

He did not speak any modern language, besides German (and some English). However, he was confident that he would be understood, as he had learned both

Latin and Greek at school. His profound knowledge of the Greek language gave him the background to coin the term “thylakoid” in 1961 (Menke 1961; see Gunning et al. 2006). Wilhelm Menke was an absolutely independent thinker and a true pioneer in science (see Gunning et al. 2006), with his ideas and scientific initiatives often far ahead of his time. He did not hesitate to introduce any possible new method from other disciplines into his research, from chemistry as well as from physics. Among many other things we owe him the check details introduction of immunological methods into photosynthesis research (Berzborn et al. 1966).

Moreover, he was a specialist in electron microscopy (see Menke 1961, 1963, among other papers) and in numerous spectroscopic methods. X-ray scattering experiments were as familiar to him as the application of the analytical ultracentrifuge. In his research group, he established any biochemical method available at the time. Under his leadership the members of his group became specialists in lipids as well as in membrane protein purification and characterization—“lipidomics” and “proteomics” one would possibly call this today. In 1962, Menke was elected to membership of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Wilhelm Menke’s former students remember him as a most proficient and demanding teacher. Solid knowledge and understanding not only of botany, but also of chemistry as well as of physics were a prerequisite YH25448 mouse to be considered a Selleckchem PX-478 participant of the botany courses he taught. Looking back, we see it as a privilege to have had the chance to learn from him. To work in his group was both a true challenge and an adventure. A complete list of Menke’s publications is available from the authors of this tribute. Acknowledgments

We thank U. Herzhoff, W. Eichenberger, E. Heinz and especially E. Höxtermann for information. The Archives of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin-Dahlem, are cordially thanked for documents and for the portrait. This tribute to Professor Wilhelm Menke was invited until by Govindjee. We thank him and John Allen for editing this manuscript. References Benson AA, Wintermans JFGM, Wiser R (1959) Chloroplast lipids as carbohydrate reservoirs. Plant Physiol 34:315–317PubMedCrossRef Berzborn R, Menke W, Trebst A, Pistorius E (1966) Über die Hemmung photosynthetischer Reaktionen isolierter Chloroplasten durch Chloroplasten-Antikörper. Z Naturforsch 21b:1057–1059 Fork DC (1996) Charles Stacy French: a tribute. Photosynth Res 49:91–101. doi:10.​1007/​BF00029431 CrossRef Gunning B, Koenig F, Govindjee (2006) A dedication to pioneers of research on chloroplast structure. In: Wise RR, Hoober JK (eds) The structure and function of plastids. Advances in photosynthesis and respiration, vol 23.