No transplantation-specific related interaction is documented, bu

No transplantation-specific related interaction is documented, but in the context of impaired graft function, the use of sulphonylureas may be limited. In addition, the weight gain associated with these agents may exacerbate the weight gain often observed post-transplantation and worsen other metabolic risk profiles. Currently available thiazolidinediones, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, learn more are selective agonists of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). They act as prandial glucose regulators and improve insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and the

liver. They are efficacious and associated with a 0.5–1.4% reduction in HbA1c,3 although the long-term glycaemic durability may be superior with these agents.19 Pioglitazone has been shown to reduce the occurrence of some cardiovascular outcomes in patients with an eGFR less than 60 mL/min but at the risk of a greater decline in renal function.20 Rosiglitazone has been safely used post kidney transplantation and demonstrated good short-term efficacy,21 one of only two antiglycaemic medications with any evidence base post-transplantation (neither in the context of a randomized controlled trial). A previously released PPARγ agonist troglitazone was withdrawn because of several cases of fatal hepatotoxicity, but no similar problems have

been associated with either rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. Fluid retention (causing weight gain and reduced haematocrit), higher fracture rates

of distal extremities in women and some gastrointestinal Selleck RAD001 side effects have all been observed with both agents. Caution is advised with PPARγ agonist use in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min, although problems with fluid retention would be much more likely in the context of advancing chronic kidney disease. Of greatest concern, recent meta-analyses have shown that although pioglitazone is associated with a reduction in the incidence of death, myocardial infarct ADP ribosylation factor and stroke,22 similar analysis of rosiglitazone suggests an increased risk of myocardial infarcts and heart failure.23,24 This is despite both agents also showing mild benefits on other cardiovascular risk profiles such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. It should be highlighted that both rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are associated with fluid retention and congestive cardiac failure. Lago et al.25 demonstrated a class effect of thiazolidinediones on the occurrence of congestive cardiac failure, but not on cardiovascular death, in a meta-analysis of seven randomized, double-blind trials. Longer follow-up of such study patients is required to clarify the overall cardiovascular risk for patients on thiazolidinediones. The current advice regarding thiazolidinediones from regulatory authorities is specifically for rosiglitazone.

Bcl11b (also known as Ctip2) is highly and specifically expressed

Bcl11b (also known as Ctip2) is highly and specifically expressed within T cells, and to a lesser extent in NK cells 20, suggesting that Bcl11b could function

as a T-cell-specific regulator. Bcl11b has been shown to bind to GC-rich target sequences, and is involved mostly in gene repression 21–23. It recruits the class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 22 and/or the class I histone deacetylases to promoters 23, 24. Genetic analyses have shown that Bcl11b is crucial at several stages of T-cell development. Germline deletion of Bcl11b results in a complete block of T-cell differentiation at the DN stage, associated with impaired TCRβ rearrangement 25. Bcl11b inactivation at the DP stage strongly blocks the maturation of DP thymocytes into SP cells and impairs positive selection, possibly through defective

TCR signaling 26. Here, we further investigated Bcl11b GSK126 in vitro function in T cells by generating new T-cell-specific deletions of this gene. We previously generated a germline deletion of exon 4 of the Bcl11b locus, Bcl11bL−/L−27, which is lethal just after birth 27. These mice exhibited a tenfold decrease in thymic cellularity (0.9±0.2×106 BGJ398 order cells for Bcl11bL−/L− versus 9.3±2.3×106 cells for Bcl11bL−/+ or Bcl11b+/+ mice). The majority of Bcl11bL−/L− thymocytes were large cells lacking CD4 and CD8 expression, whereas a smaller proportion expressed CD8 (Supporting Information Fig. 1A). Bcl11bL−/L− thymocytes lacked αβTCR but most expressed γδTCR, including those expressing Adenosine CD8 ( Supporting Information Fig. 1A, and data not shown). To circumvent the perinatal lethality and to analyze the role of Bcl11b in adult T cells, we combined the floxed Bcl11b alleles (Bcl11bL2/L2) with a transgenic allele expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the Lck promoter, which initiates T-cell-specific expression in DN2 and DN3 cells 28. Bcl11bL2/L2Lckcre/+ mice appeared healthy and indistinguishable from littermates and were analyzed at 6 wk of age. The thymuses from these mice were very small and contained low numbers of thymocytes (an average of 3×105 cells; control

littermates had an average of >108 cells). T cells from Lck-Cre-deleted mice exhibited a phenotype reminiscent of that found in null newborn mice: most cells were large DN (48%) or CD8+ (30%) cells, and few DP cells (10%) were detected (Supporting Information Fig. 1B). In addition, as was observed in Bcl11bL−/L− newborns, a large proportion of cells, including most CD8+ cells, expressed γδTCR ( Supporting Information Fig. 1B; 46% of total thymocytes on average). Although these γδTCR+ cells were present in absolute numbers similar to WT, the phenotype of these cells was clearly abnormal, as CD8-expressing TCRγδ+ cells were not detected in control mice (Supporting Information Figs. 1B and 2). These data confirm that Bcl11b acts early in T cells to promote differentiation toward the αβ lineage.

© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Microsurgery 34:301–307, 2014 “

© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:301–307, 2014. “
“Background: There are case reports and small series in the literature relating to the use of medicinal leeches by plastic surgeons; however, larger series from individual units are rare. The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive 4-year case series of the use of medicinal leeches, discuss the

current evidence regarding indications, risks, and benefits and highlight the recent updates regarding leech speciation. Methods: Patients prescribed leeches in a 4-year period (July 2004–2008) Selleckchem AP24534 were collated from hospital pharmacy records (N = 35). The number of leeches used, demographic, clinical, and microbiological details were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Thirty-five patients were treated with leeches. The age range was 2 to 98 years (mean = 49.3). Leeches were most

commonly used for venous congestion in pedicled flaps and replantations. Blood transfusions were necessary in 12 cases (34%) [mean = 2.8 units, range 2–5 units]. Our infection rate was 20% (7/35) including five infections with Aeromonas spp. (14.2%). The proportion of patients becoming infected after Selleckchem AZD5363 leech therapy was significantly greater in the group of patients that did not receive prophylactic antibiotic treatment (Fisher’s Exact test P = 0.0005). In total, 14 cases (40%) were salvaged in entirety, in 7 cases 80% or more, in 2 cases 50 to 79%, and in 1 case less than 50% of the tissues were salvaged. In 11 cases (31%), the tissues were totally lost. Conclusion: Our study highlights both

the benefits and the risks to patients in selected clinical situations and also the potential risks. The routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis is supported. In view of the emerging evidence that Hirudo verbana are now used as standard leech therapy, and the primary pathogen is Aeromonas veronii, until a large prospective multicenter study is published, large series of patients treated with leeches should be reported. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2011. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
“Background: Lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) is becoming a choice of treatment for compression-refractory lymphedema. However, LVA requires highly sophisticated microsurgical technique called supermicrosurgery, and no training model for LVA has been developed. This study aimed to develop and evaluate feasibility of a new LVA model using rat thigh lymphatic vessels. Methods: Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. After preoperative indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography, lymphatic vessels in posteromedial aspect of the thigh were dissected. In right limbs, the largest lymphatic vessel was anastomosed to the short saphenous vein or its branch, and the remaining lymphatic vessels were ligated (LVA group). In left limbs, all lymphatic vessels were ligated (control group). Anastomosis patency was evaluated intraoperatively and at postoperative 7 days.

The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of intere

The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “
“Recent scientific discoveries fuelled by the application of next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing technologies highlight the striking impact of these platforms in characterizing multiple Wnt antagonist aspects in genomics research. This technology has been used in the study of the B-cell

and T-cell receptor repertoire. The novelty of immunosequencing comes from the recent rapid development of techniques and the exponential reduction in cost of sequencing. Here, we describe some of the technologies, which we collectively refer to as Rep-Seq (repertoire sequencing), to portray achievements in the field and to present the essential and inseparable role of next-generation sequencing to the understanding of entities in immune response. PD98059 ic50 The large Rep-Seq data sets that should be available in the near future call for new computational algorithms to segue the transition from ‘classic’ molecular-based

analysis to system-wide analysis. The combination of new algorithms with high-throughput data will form the basis for possible new clinical implications in personalized medicine and deeper understanding of immune behaviour and immune response. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has established itself as a highly useful platform in characterizing multiple aspects of genomics research. It has been used to re-sequence

EGFR antibody inhibitor the genome of previously sequenced organisms (re-sequencing);1 sequence the genomes of organisms with unknown sequences (de novo sequencing, e.g. application2 and algorithm3); determine RNA abundance levels (RNA-seq);4 determine protein–DNA binding regions (ChIP-seq);5 determine protein–RNA binding sequences (CLIP-seq)6; and more.7–9 This technology has been used in the study of the immunoglobulin repertoire. Described here, through the collection of presented works, is how a systematic, accurate, unbiased analysis of the immunological repertoire is within reach. The immunological repertoire is the collection of trans-membrane antigen-receptor proteins located on the surface of T and B cells. The combinatorial mechanism that is responsible for encoding the receptors, does so by reshuffling the genetic code, with a potential to generate more than 1018 different T-cell receptors (TCRs) in humans,10 and a much more diverse B-cell repertoire. These sequences, in turn, will be transcribed and then translated into protein, to be presented on the cell surface. The recombination process that rearranges the gene segments for the construction of the receptors is key to the development of the immune response, and the correct formation of the rearranged receptors is critical to their future binding affinity to antigen.

The patient had undetectable levels of IgG, IgA and IgM and norma

The patient had undetectable levels of IgG, IgA and IgM and normal numbers of circulating lymphocytes (10 686 cells per µl) with remarkable eosinophilia (4030 cells per µl). The rest of his initial immune work-up is summarized

in Table 1. Genetic work-up revealed a compound heterozygous RAG2 defect (G95V+E480X). The patient was commenced on CsA treatment; however, his cutaneous symptoms did not improve despite maintaining a high CsA trough level (100–150 ng/ml). Therefore, methylprednisone (2 mg/kg/day) was added and slow resolution of his cutaneous symptoms was observed. The patient was kept on both CsA and methylprednisone treatments until a successful HLA-matched cord blood transplantation was performed learn more at the age of 6 months. In both patients, transplantations were successful and they have been currently followed for 2 years (patient 1) and 1 year (patient 2), with complete recovery of their symptoms and full reconstitution of their immune system. TCR repertoire.  Examination of TCR-Vβ at presentation

revealed peripheral expansion of oligoclonal T cells with dominant specific receptors. In patient 1, the dominant clone was TCR-Vβ 20, while in patient 2, TCR-Vβ 17 and TCR-Vβ 7·2 were dominant (Fig. 1a,b). Clonal patterns were also seen in the examined TCR-Vγ repertoire in both patients (Fig. 2a,b). These results suggest abnormal thymocyte selection and peripheral GPX6 expansion, as expected in

Omenn patients. Patient 1 showed a significant clinical improvement during CsA therapy; therefore, a follow-up analysis of his TCR repertoire Y-27632 solubility dmso was not indicated. However, in order to show that the patient did not have any expanded peripheral T cells, prior to the HSCT procedure, analysis of his TCR-Vγ repertoire was performed. The analysis revealed complete lymphopenia and no TCR expansion (Fig. 2c). In contrast, patient 2 did not respond completely to the initial treatment with CsA and remained symptomatic, therefore a follow-up analysis of his TCR repertoire was performed (Fig. 1c–e). Surprisingly, while the expression of the dominant TCR-Vβ 17 clone was reduced, the TCR-Vβ 7·2 clone did not respond to CsA therapy. Moreover, a few other TCRs, such as TCR-Vβ 14 and TCR-Vβ 5·1, started to appear (Fig. 1c). Only the addition of methylprednisone treatment resulted in suppression of these clones (Fig. 1d). However, even before the transplant, the patient still suffered mild skin symptoms, which were probably attributed to the presence of the TCR-Vβ 14 clone (Fig. 1e). Changes in the relevant TCRs during the treatment are presented in Fig. 3. During that time the patient was clinically stable apart from his skin symptoms and had no overt infection or other reason to explain clonal expansion. Trec quantification.

Now we are in a position to consider the elements that should be

Now we are in a position to consider the elements that should be factored into a model of the regulation of class. 1  There are effective

and ineffective classes in ridding a given Eliminon. The ineffective classes can either block the functioning of the effective classes and/or be a serious source of immunopathology. Therefore, a choice must be made between them [8]. The adaptive immune response cannot be lit up like a Christmas tree. The question how many categories of response and how many incompatible classes there FDA-approved Drug Library solubility dmso are needs analysis. Associative recognition of antigen is obligatory if coherence and independence are to be respected. As cited earlier, two solutions as to mechanism have been proposed, either the unique STAT inhibitor usage of the B cell as an APC for the activation of T-helpers [35] or presentation of the antigen-derived peptides by an APC in a signalling patch [6, 8]. This should be an active area of investigation as a solution to the mechanism of T-T interactions in ARA (or its functional equivalent) on an APC is central. 4  The induction of a given class of regulatory eTh requires (i) processing and presentation of the Eliminon by the APC and

(ii) an interaction in ARA of iTh-APC-eTh (delivery of Signal 2) in the presence of a class-determining trauma signal referred to as Signal 3. Given these considerations, what questions should we ask that must be answered by

any model? Any paratope that binds multiple NS epitopes has an increased probability of seeing in the host’s antigenic load two Eliminons that require different effector classes to rid them. Polyspecificity tends to blur the ability of the system to maintain coherence and independence of responsiveness. The acceptable limits on the degree of polyspecificity need a detailed analysis by modelling. This is a to-be-resolved problem that is cited here simply for completeness. This question was introduced earlier but because it is the single most important issue to settle Teicoplanin before constructing a model that we return to it. The adaptive system sees pathogens and their products to which the innate system is blind. Further, the adaptive system sees everything that the innate system sees. Therefore, it appeared reasonable that a somatically generated random repertoire would be coupled to the appropriate effector using a somatic learning process. Such a process could only be based on a biological assay of the effectiveness with which the Eliminon is ridded. This led to a very seductive theory that was termed the Adapton Model [6, 45]. The theory failed, interestingly enough, not because of any definitive experimental test, but because it could not be reduced to a testable mechanism.

Comparative quantification of sarcolemmal proteins on immunostain

Comparative quantification of sarcolemmal proteins on immunostained buy RG-7388 muscle sections will be of use to establish both the abundance and localization of the protein. Moreover, it can be

applied to assess the efficacy of experimental therapies where only partial restoration or upregulation of the protein may occur. The study of proteins expressed either at the muscle fibre plasmalemma or in the basal lamina extracellular matrix is the basis for the diagnosis of a number of muscular dystrophies. These include Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), characterized by the absence of the sarcolemma-associated cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A), due to the deficiency of the extracellular selleck products matrix protein laminin α2, and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), due to reduced collagen VI [1]. However,

in some of these conditions the protein deficiency is subtle and can be difficult to evaluate. Moreover, in some muscular dystrophies the patterns of secondary protein changes can aid in the diagnostic process [1]. Examples of these are cases of utrophin (UTR) upregulation in dystrophinopathies [2], dystrophin reduction in some sarcoglycanopathies [3,4], absent nitric oxide synthase in DMD and some Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients [5,6], reduced laminin α2 in alpha dystroglycanopathies [7,8] or increases in laminin α5 in MDC1A and

dystroglycanopathies [9]. The quantitative study of the expression of these proteins and their localization is also vital for the correct assessment of experimental strategies designed to restore the missing protein in adequate amount, Clomifene in the correct localization and interacting appropriately with other proteins in order to restore muscle function. Immunohistochemical techniques are frequently used to study the abundance and localization of proteins associated with these diseases [10]. Western blot analysis is also of use in the diagnosis of patients affected by muscular dystrophies, offering valuable semiquantitative data [11]. However, this technique requires greater amounts of sample and volume of antibodies and it only offers true quantitative information when studying samples far from the low and high detection limits [11,12]. Furthermore, in diseases like UCMD, where a reduction in collagen VI in the basal lamina rather than the interstitial connective tissue is a feature, reliable quantitative information of basal lamina protein levels is crucial [13]. In order to combine information on protein localization and abundance, we sought to develop a reproducible method to be able to quantitatively measure protein abundance in immunohistochemical labelled skeletal muscle.

Only COI-negative fibers were histochemically negative for COX ac

Only COI-negative fibers were histochemically negative for COX activity in all patient groups. Frequency of COI-negative fibers was significantly lower in patients with mtDNA point mutation than in patients with deletions. This suggests that impact of point mutation on protein synthesis is less than that of deletions. “
“Brain ischaemia models are essential to

study the pathomechanisms of stroke. Our aim was to investigate the reliability and reproducibility of our novel focal ischaemia-reperfusion model. To induce a cortical transient ischaemic attack, we lifted the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) with a special hook. selleckchem The early changes after 2 × 15-min occlusion were observed in the somatosensory evoked responses (SERs). The histological responses to 2 × 15-min MCA occlusion and to 30-, 45- or 60-min ischaemia were examined after a 1-day survival period by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Fluoro Jade C (FJC) staining. Another group, with 30-min ischaemia, was analysed histologically by FJC, S100 and CD11b labelling after a 5-day survival period. The amplitudes of the SERs decreased immediately at the beginning of the ischaemic period, and remained at a reduced level during the ischaemia. Reperfusion resulted in increasing SER amplitudes, but they never regained the control level. The short-lasting ischaemia did not

lead to brain infarction GSK1120212 concentration when evaluated with TTC, but intense labelling was found with FJC. The 30-min ischaemia did not result in FJC labelling after 1 day, but marked labelling was observed after 5 days with FJC, S100 and CD11b in the cortical area supplied by the MCA. We present here Sitaxentan a novel, readily reproducible method to induce

focal brain ischaemia. The ischaemia-reperfusion results in noteworthy changes in the SERs and the appearance of conventional tissue damage markers. This method involves possibilities for precise blood flow regulation, and the setting of the required level of perfusion. “
“In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the pathophysiological events preceding and promoting an uncontrolled and remarkable growth is largely unknown. Studies on gliomas and macrophage expression have shown high levels of phagocytic cells, that is, microglial cells. It has also been demonstrated that human astrocytic cells and rat glioma cells are capable of phagocytosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential phagocytic property in human GBM cells in tumor biopsies from surgery. With an immunhistochemical double staining using macrophage markers (CD68 and CD163) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) as a marker for neoplastic cells, we found high levels of double positive cells in human GBM. In hematoxylin-erythrosin stained sections, we also identified fragmented cell components in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. In our judgement, many neoplastic cells in GBM are also positive for macrophage markers.

The MCV (mean corpuscular volume, volume per individual erythrocy

The MCV (mean corpuscular volume, volume per individual erythrocyte) was also reduced in these mice, confirming the successful induction of IDA characterized by microcytic anemia. Iron-deficient mice were infected with Plasmodium yoelii (Py) and the kinetics of infection assessed by evaluating the daily levels of parasitemia and survival rates.

Py has two substrains, PyL and PyNL, each with differing virulence. Infection of iron-sufficient mice with the virulent strain, PyL, resulted in a rapid increase in parasitemia that killed all mice within 10 days (Fig. 1A). Interestingly, IDA mice showed markedly lower levels of parasitemia throughout the period of infection and survived longer than iron-sufficient Opaganib ic50 control mice. They finally succumbed to infection with low levels of parasitemia, presumably due to severe anemia (Fig. 1A). Mice infected with LD50 of the PyNL strain (less virulent than PyL) experienced peak levels of parasitemia 3 wk after infection followed by complete eradication of the parasites. Mice cured of PyNL infection showed sterile immunity against otherwise-lethal infections by PyL 8. IDA mice had low levels of parasitemia and all of them survived (Fig. 1B). A detailed evaluation showed that the numbers of late trophozoites and shizonts were

significantly reduced (Fig. 1C). These results clearly demonstrated that IDA mice were protected from death caused by acute Py infection. This protection was STK38 not limited to infection with Py, as similar results were obtained when IDA mice were infected with the P. berghei NK65 strain (data not shown). To address CP-868596 the mechanisms underlying resistance to malaria in IDA, two possibilities were raised. One relates to the direct effects

on the parasites themselves; the development/growth of the parasites is suppressed in IDA erythrocytes. The other is that iron-deficiency modulates host immunity to enhance the eradication of parasites. We first focused on the intra-erythrocytic development of the malaria parasites. Erythrocytes isolated from IDA mice during the early phase of PyL infection were cultured in the presence of 10% normal mouse serum and periodically observed under a microscope. The purified infected cells were almost ring-infected and developed into late trophozoites within 3 h. They developed into mature schizonts after nuclear division within 6 h. PyL parasites grew equally well in IDA erythrocytes and control erythrocytes (Fig. 2A). To further mimic the in vivo situation, we used serum from IDA mice. Under these conditions the parasites still grew in the presence of IDA serum (Fig. 2A). Furthermore, we did not observe any differences in the number of merozoites within the individual mature schizonts in vivo (Fig. 2B). These results seem to exclude the possibility that IDA adversely affects the development/growth of malaria parasites. We next analyzed the effects of IDA on host immunity.

We also thank Sunao Iyoda (National Institute of

We also thank Sunao Iyoda (National Institute of ACP-196 purchase Infectious Diseases: NIID) and Yan Lu (NIID) for assistance with HEp-2 adherence assay, and Shizuko Ichinose (Tokyo Medical and Dental University) for assistance with the electron microscopy.

Hidemasa Izumiya (NIID) kindly provided the EPEC reference strain. This study was supported by grants-in-aid for Food and Chemical Safety from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan. “
“Many differences exist between human immature and mature natural killer (NK) cells, but their respective molecular signatures and transcriptional regulators are relatively unknown. To gain new insights into the diversity and developmental regulation of human NK cells, we used data from high-resolution microarrays with independent verification to describe a comprehensive comparative analysis between immature decidual NK (idNK) cells with a CD56brightCD16−T-bet− phenotype and mature peripheral NK (mpNK) cells with a CD56dimCD16+T-bet+ phenotype. This study shows that many novel growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines are expressed by NK cells, and they may regulate NK-cell development or function in an autocrine manner. Notably, we present that idNK and MI-503 mpNK cells are enriched

for homeobox and zinc-finger transcription factors (TFs), respectively. Additionally, many novel candidate transcriptional regulators are common to both idNK and mpNK cells. We further describe the transcriptional regulatory networks of NK cells and show that the endogenous growth factors, cytokines, and TFs enriched in idNK cells regulate each other and may contribute to idNK-cell immaturity. diglyceride Together, these findings provide novel molecular signatures for immature and mature NK cells, and the novel candidate regulators identified here can be used to describe and further understand NK-cell differentiation and function. “
“Tumour necrosis factor-α-induced

protein-8 like-2 (TIPE2) is a newly identified immune negative regulator. The abnormal expression of TIPE2 has been found in several human inflammatory diseases. However, the expression level and clinical significance of TIPE2 in childhood asthma remain unclear. In this study, we detected TIPE2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 42 children with asthma and 39 healthy controls by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and Western blot. We also detected the levels of serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil (EO), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and analysed the correlations of TIPE2 expression with IgE, EO, IL-4 and IFN-γ. The results showed that TIPE2 mRNA and protein expression were decreased in children with asthma compared with healthy controls. The levels of IgE, EO and IL-4 in the children with asthma were obviously higher than those in normal controls, while the level of IFN-γ in patients with asthma was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects.