Accordingly, Perkins et al. (2001) developed a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) targeting smokers�� weight concerns. Compared with behavioral selleck chemicals llc weight loss treatment and standard treatment, CBT (in conjunction with standard smoking cessation treatment) was more effective in improving smoking abstinence over the next year. Although CBT has merit for reducing weight concerns, mindfulness-based strategies might be more acceptable to women with body image concerns, for whom viewing their bodies with emotional neutrality may seem more reasonable than challenging dysfunctional thoughts (Stewart, 2004). Mindfulness (paying attention to present-moment experience with an attitude of acceptance; Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006; Kabat-Zinn, 1994) is one alternative method for coping with negative thoughts and emotions related to body image.
Wilson (1999, 2004) developed mindfulness-based mirror exposure (ME), which encourages clients to observe and describe their bodies nonjudgmentally. Rather than trying to avoid unpleasant thoughts or feelings, patients are taught to accept their experience and tolerate any unpleasant sensations that arise (Delinsky & Wilson, 2006). Mindfulness-based ME has received preliminary empirical support for reducing body image dysfunction (Delinsky & Wilson, 2006). Researchers have studied mindfulness as a naturally occurring individual difference (trait mindfulness), as a state that varies within individuals (state mindfulness) and as a longer term intervention (mindfulness-based treatment).
Trait (or dispositional) Drug_discovery mindfulness refers to an individual��s tendency to observe and accept present-moment experiences in day-to-day life (Baer et al., 2006; Brown & Ryan, 2003). Among smokers, those with higher trait mindfulness tend to report lower negative affect, lower nicotine dependence, and less-severe withdrawal symptoms (Vidrine et al., 2009; Waters et al., 2009). Whereas trait mindfulness questionnaires assess individuals�� general tendencies to be mindful (e.g., Brown & Ryan, 2003), state mindfulness questionnaires ask participants about their experiences during a specific time (e.g., ��just now,�� Lau et al., 2006). Brief mindfulness training might increase individuals�� levels of state mindfulness and associated behavior. For example, Westbrook, Creswell, Tabibnia, Julson, Kober, & Tindle (2011) provided smokers with brief mindfulness instructions (intended to increase state mindfulness), which reduced cue-elicited cigarette craving. Preliminary research also supports the use of longer mindfulness-based treatments in aiding smoking cessation (Brewer et al., 2011; Davis, Fleming, Bonus, & Baker, 2007).