After subcutaneous implantation, the thermally responsive microcapsules resulted in a more sustained
and long-term SDF-1 alpha release compared with those without PNIPAAm-grafting. In the future, this delivery system may have great potential for use in cell recruiting biomaterials for various tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE. Recent studies have demonstrated that a new antitumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antibody, infliximab, is effective in controlling ocular inflammatory attacks in Behcet’s disease. In this study, Vorinostat chemical structure the effect of infliximab on gene expression patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Behcet’s disease patients was investigated before and after initiation of infliximab treatment.\n\nMETHODS. A human whole-genome microarray of 54,359 genes was used to analyze mRNA expression profiles of
peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from selleck chemical four patients (three women, one man, 21-64 years at age) at baseline and at 22 weeks after initiation of infliximab. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed for selected up -or downregulated genes, to confirm the microarray results.\n\nRESULTS. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy reduced the frequency of ocular episodes in three of four patients. Among inflammatory cytokine-related genes, TNF blockade reduced expression of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor type 2, interferon-gamma receptors, IL6, IL6 receptor, gp130, and IL17 receptors. Furthermore, gene expression of Toll-like receptor CAL101 2 (TLR2), receptor for mycobacterial glycolipid (C-type lectin domain family 4, member E: CLEC4E), and complexin 2 (CPLX2)was downregulated in all patients.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Several up- or downregulated genes identified in this study may be candidates for further investigation in identifying the molecular mechanism of infliximab in the treatment of Behcet’s disease with refractory uveoretinitis. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis
Sci. 2011;52:7681-7686) DOI:10.1167/iovs.11-7999″
“Previous studies on a cytokine model for schizophrenia reveal that the hyperdopaminergic innervation and neurotransmission in the globus pallidus (GP) is involved in its behavioral impairments. Here, we further explored the physiological consequences of the GP abnormality in the indirect pathway, using the same schizophrenia model established by perinatal exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Single-unit recordings revealed that the neural activity from the lateral GP was elevated in EGF-treated rats in vivo and in vitro (i.e., slice preparations), whereas the central area of the GP exhibited no significant differences. The increase in the pallidal activity was normalized by subchronic treatment with risperidone, which is known to ameliorate their behavioral deficits. We also monitored extracellular GABA concentrations in the substantia nigra, one of the targets of pallidal efferents.
In modelling studies, a relation between the two is often not made specific, GSI-IX manufacturer but a correlation is biologically plausible. However, it is difficult to establish such correlation, because of the unobservable nature of infection events. We have quantified a joint distribution of generation time and incubation period by a novel estimation method for household data with two susceptible individuals, consisting of time intervals between disease onsets of two measles cases. We used two such datasets, and a separate incubation
period dataset. Results indicate that the mean incubation period and the generation time of measles are positively correlated, and that both lie in the range of 11-12 days, suggesting that infectiousness of measles cases increases significantly around the time of symptom see more onset. The correlation between times from infection to secondary transmission and to symptom onset could critically affect the predicted effectiveness of isolation and quarantine. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The recommendation of sorafenib as standard
of care in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma has lent support to the increased use of antiangiogenic therapies. However, in three phase 3 randomised trials that compared other antiangiogenics with sorafenib, results did not show superiority or non-inferiority of the new therapies. The 10-month median overall survival shown in these studies for patients given sorafenib might be a ceiling for single-agent antiangiogenic therapy. Strategies
to increase survival time include combination therapies that pair antiangiogenic treatment with biological therapy or chemotherapy. The combination selleck screening library of sorafenib and erlotinib was not superior to sorafenib alone, which suggests no positive interaction between antiangiogenics and tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. A combination of sorafenib and doxorubicin is being assessed in a randomised phase 3 trial. Differences in patient outcome with sorafenib because of disease cause and the ethnic origin of patients suggest that sorafenib’s multitarget capacity, including RAF kinase inhibition, might be important. MET inhibitors cabozantinib and tivantinib are drugs that might also bypass the so-called antiangiogenic ceiling and have led to selective treatment of patients that overexpress MET with these drugs. Although this intense period of research activity has not yet resulted in significant improvements in survival for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, we are certainly closer to a customised treatment, which should increase the antiangiogenic survival ceiling.”
“Morphometric traits and body weight are often used to study changes in fitness.
Cuprizone abolished and Cu2+ but not Fe3+ ions enhanced both ascorbate (50 mu M)-induced constriction and blockade of EDHF. The blockade of EDHF produced by ascorbate in the Selleck SCH 900776 presence of CuSO4 (0.5 mu M) was abolished by the hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase, but unaffected by the scavengers of hydroxyl radical or superoxide anion, mannitol and superoxide dismutase (SOD), respectively. Consistent with these observations, the oxidation of ascorbate
by CuSO4 led to the rapid production of hydrogen peroxide. Catalase, mannitol and SOD had no effect on ascorbate-induced constriction. Thus, in the rat perfused mesentery, both the constrictor and EDHF-blocking actions of ascorbate arise from its oxidation by trace Cu2+ ions. The blockade of EDHF results
from the consequent generation of hydrogen peroxide, but the factor producing constriction remains unidentified. These detrimental actions of ascorbate may help explain the disappointing outcome of clinical trials investigating dietary supplementation with the vitamin on cardiovascular health. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of inpatient hysterectomy and explore changes in the use of various routes of hysterectomy and patterns of referral.\n\nMETHODS: The selleck chemical Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify all women aged 18 years or older who underwent inpatient hysterectomy between 1998 and 2010. Weighted estimates of national trends were calculated and the number of procedures performed estimated. Trends in hospital volume and across hospital characteristics were examined.\n\nRESULTS: After weighting, we identified a total 7,438,452 women who underwent inpatient hysterectomy between 1998 and 2010. The number of hysterectomies performed annually rose from 543,812 in 1998 to a peak of 681,234 in 2002; it then declined consistently
annually and reached 433,621 cases in 2010. Overall, 247,973 (36.4%) fewer hysterectomies were performed find more in 2010 compared with 2002. From 2002 to 2010 the number of hysterectomies performed for each of the following indications declined: leiomyoma (247.6%), abnormal bleeding (228.9%), benign ovarian mass (263.1%), endometriosis (265.3%), and pelvic organ prolapse (239.4%). The median hospital case volume decreased from 83 procedures per year in 2002 to 50 cases per year in 2010 (P<.001).\n\nCONCLUSION: The number of inpatient hysterectomies performed in the United States has declined substantially over the past decade. The median number of hysterectomies per hospital has declined likewise by more than 40%.”
“A patterned method was proposed to realize large area fabrication of organic solar cells (OSCs) in series and parallel configurations. Series and parallel configurations of OSCs on ITO glass were designed and studied.
A large body of evidence from both human and animal studies now points to a relationship between circadian disorders and altered metabolic response, suggesting that circadian and metabolic regulatory networks are tightly connected. After a review of the current understanding of the molecular circadian core clock, we will discuss the hypothesis that clock genes themselves
link the core molecular clock and metabolic regulatory Fosbretabulin mw networks. We propose that the nuclear receptor and core clock component Rev-erb-alpha behaves as a gatekeeper to timely coordinate the circadian metabolic response.”
“Trypanosomes are parasites that cycle between the insect host (procyclic form) and mammalian host (bloodstream form). These parasites lack conventional transcription regulation, including factors that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, they possess a stress response mechanism, the spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS) pathway. SLS elicits shutoff of spliced leader RNA (SL RNA) transcription by perturbing the binding of the transcription factor tSNAP42 to its cognate promoter, thus eliminating trans-splicing of all mRNAs. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in procyclic trypanosomes elicits changes in the transcriptome similar to those induced by conventional UPR found in other eukaryotes. The mechanism of
up-regulation under ER stress is dependent on differential stabilization of mRNAs. The transcriptome
changes are accompanied by ER dilation and elevation in the ER chaperone, BiP. check details Prolonged ER stress induces SLS pathway. RNAi silencing of SEC63, VX-680 molecular weight a factor that participates in protein translocation across the ER membrane, or SEC61, the translocation channel, also induces SLS. Silencing of these genes or prolonged ER stress led to programmed cell death (PCD), evident by exposure of phosphatidyl serine, DNA laddering, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as typical morphological changes observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ER stress response is also induced in the bloodstream form and if the stress persists it leads to SLS. We propose that prolonged ER stress induces SLS, which serves as a unique death pathway, replacing the conventional caspase-mediated PCD observed in higher eukaryotes.”
“Patient-reported outcomes are important for clinical practice and research, and should reflect what patients perceive as important. The objective of this study was to develop and preliminarily validate a brief, patient-derived, disease-specific tool, the pancreatic cancer disease impact (PACADI) score.\n\nThe development was performed in two phases. Forty-one patients with confirmed pancreatic cancer (PC) selected dimensions of health related to the impact of the disease.
Histologic evaluations were carried out I month and 3 months after surgery. The biomechanical strength of the anastomosis was assessed along the longitudinal axis of the aortic segments using a tensile tester. Local compliance at the anastomotic site was also evaluated in the circumferential direction.\n\nResults. The media was significantly thinner in the PTFE group than in the control group (65.8% +/- 5.1% vs 95.0% +/- 9.3% of normal thickness; P < .05). Relative to the control group, the adventitial layer was significantly thinner in the PTFE group (42.3% +/- 8.2% of control; P < .05) but significantly
thicker in the PGA and the PGA + bFGF groups (117.2% +/- 11.3% and 134.1% +/- 14.2% of control, respectively; P < .05). There were more
vessels this website in the adventitial layer in the PGA CA4P inhibitor + bFGF group than in the control, PTFE, and PGA groups (29.2 +/- 2.1/mm(2) vs 13.8 +/- 0.8, 5.4 +/- 0.7, 17.0 +/- 1.3/mm(2), respectively; P < .01). There were no significant differences between the four groups in the failure force at anastomotic sites. Local compliance at the anastomotic site was higher in the PGA group than that in the PTFE group (11.6 +/- 1.6 10(-6) m(2)/N vs 5.6 +/- 1.9 10(-6) m(2)/N; P < .05).\n\nConclusion: Reinforcement of the experimental aortic wall with PTFE felt resulted in thinning of the media and adventitia and fewer vessels at the anastomotic site. These histologic changes were not observed when biodegradable felt was used. The bFGF failed to augment the modification of the aortic wall with the exception buy HSP990 of increased adventitial vessel number. Biomechanical strength of the anastomosis along the longitudinal axis was comparable in all four groups; however, local vascular compliance was better in the biodegradable PGA felt group. (J Vase Surg 2010;51:194-202.)\n\nClinical Relevance: This investigation was conducted to extend our previous investigation on a biodegradable felt strip into more practical form before we proceed in a clinical application of the new, material. We hypothesized that sustaining compression of the aorta by the nonbiodegradable felt strip may cause structural
derangement and local ischemia on the aortic wall, which may lead to occurrence of late postoperative false aneurysm after aortic surgery. We attempted to find a clue for preventing adverse effects of reinforcement with a conventional felt strip. We have found that biodegradable felt prevented thinning of both the media and adventitia and increased adventitial vessels with increased vascular compliance at the aortic anastomotic sites.”
“Accurate quantum-mechanical nonrelativistic variational calculations are performed for the nine lowest members of the P-2(o) Rydberg series (1s(2)np(1), n = 2, …, 10) of the lithium atom. The effect of the finite nuclear mass is included in the calculations allowing for determining the isotopic shifts of the energy levels.
We show that by using two probes of different paramagnetic strengths attached at the same site, the relative population and exchange time scale can be extracted, providing that the dynamic event occurs
in the second to millisecond regime. Hence, this improved PRE scheme, differentially scaled paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (DiSPRE), permits both temporal and spatial characterization of a dynamic system. When applying RG-7112 concentration the DiSPRE scheme to reassess the weak interactions between the N-terminal domain of enzyme I and phosphocarrier protein (HPr) from the bacterial phopshotransferase system, we have identified a minor species of excited-state complex with a similar to 4% population and exchanging with the stereospecific complex at ASP2215 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor similar to 1100 s(-1). Such species is distinct from other encounter complexes previously characterized and is likely a result of
promiscuity of the HPr binding interface.”
“A simple and accurate capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed to simultaneously separate and quantify heparin, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. The relative standard deviations (intra-day) of migration time, peak height and peak area for heparin, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid were lower than 1.11, 5.45 and 2.82%, respectively. The limits of detection of heparin, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid were 0.91, 0.12 and 9.04 x 10(-3) mg/mL, respectively. The developed electrophoretic method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial drug prod acts and biological samples containing chondroitin sulfate and/or hyaluronic acid. The recoveries for chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid were in the range of 95.9 similar to 107.0%. This was the first time the content of hyaluronic acid in the synovial fluids from osteoarthritic rabbits was investigated by CE. The results suggested that hyaluronic acid in the synovial
fluids from osteoarthritic rabbits may be farther metabolized and the administration of chondroitin sulfate or hyaluronic acid could affect GANT61 cost the content and metabolism of hyaluronic acid in the synovial fluids. The developed CE method was simple to implement without sample pretreatment such as depolymerisation, very repeatable and easily transferred from lab to lab.”
“In 2009, an outbreak of hepatitis B with high mortality was observed in Sabarkantha district, Gujarat state, India with 456 cases and 89 deaths. Hospitalized patients with self-limiting disease (152, AVH)) and fulminant hepatic failure (39, FHF including 27 fatal and 12 survivals) were investigated. These were screened for diagnostic markers for hepatitis viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotyping and mutant analysis. Complete HBV genomes from 22 FHF and 17 AVH cases were sequenced. Serosurveys were carried out in the most and least affected blocks for the prevalence of HBV and identification of mutants. History of injection from a physician was associated with FHF and AVH cases.
“Background: We here describe the pharmacological characteristic, in vivo efficacy, and in vitro mechanisms of a polymer-free leflunomide eluting stent in comparison to its
rapamycin-coated equivalent.\n\nMethods: Stents were coated with 40 mM solutions of leflunomide (L) or rapamycin (R) or were left uncoated (BM). Neointima formation was assessed 6 weeks after implantation into Sprague Dawley rats by optical coherence tomographies (OCT) and histopathology. In vitro proliferation assays were performed using isolated endothelial and smooth-muscle-cells from Sprague Dawley rats ACY-738 cost to investigate the cell-specific pharmacokinetic effect of leflunomide and rapamycin.\n\nResults: HPLC-based drug release kinetics revealed a similar profile with 90% of the drug being released after 12.1 +/- 0.2 (L) and 13.0 +/- 0.2 days (R). After 6 weeks, OCTs showed that in-stent luminal obliteration was less for the coated stents (L:12.0 +/- 9.4%, R:13.3 +/- 13.1%) when compared to identical bare metal stents (BM:26.4 +/- 4.7%; p <= 0.046). Histology with computer-assisted morphometry was performed and demonstrated reduced in-stent I/M thickness ratios (L:2.5 +/- 1.2, R:3.7 +/- GM6001 ic50 3.3, BM:6.7 +/- 2.3, p <= 0.049 for L and R vs. BM) and neointimal areas (L:0.6 +/- 0.3, R:0.7 +/- 0.2, BM:1.3 +/- 0.4, p <= 0.039 for L and R vs. BM) with stent coating. No differences were found for injury and inflammation selleck scores (L and R vs.
BM; p=NS). In vitro SMC proliferation was dose-dependently and similarly inhibited by L and R at 1-100 nM (p = NS L vs.
R). Interestingly, human EC proliferation at 10-100 nM was significantly inhibited only by R (p < 0.001), but not by L (p=NS).\n\nConclusions: The diminished inhibition of EC proliferation may improve arterial healing and contribute to the safety profile of the leflunomide stent. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ac-TMP-2, an immunodominant hookworm antigen encoding a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) was cloned by immunoscreening an Ancylostoma caninum larval cDNA library with sera pooled from dogs immunized with irradiated A. caninum third stage larvae (ir-L3). The open reading frame of Ac-tmp-2 cDNA encoded a 244 amino acids (predicted molecular weight of 27.7 kDa), which shared a common N-terminus with other vertebrate and invertebrate TIMPs. including Ac-TMP-1, the most abundant adult hookworm secreted protein. However Ac-TMP-2 also contains an unusual multicopy (ten) repeat of the amino acid sequence, KTVEENDE. By immunoblotting, Ac-TMP-2 was detected only in adult hook-worms and their excretory secretory products although the corresponding mRNA was also detected in U. Immunolocalization with specific antiserum showed that native Ac-TMP-2 was located in adult worm’s esophagus and cephalic glands. Recombinant Ac-TMP-2 expressed in bacteria was highly immunogenic and recognized by ir-L3 immunized dog immune sera.
The literature highlights varied management strategies and no recorded fatalities
with radical surgery in children selleck chemicals largely evolving from adult surgical practice. Conclusions: This study confirms that paediatric patients with ‘incidental’ NET tumours of the appendix have an excellent prognosis. Consensus guidelines should ideally be developed by paediatric oncology surgeons to avoid unnecessary radical surgery in many otherwise healthy children. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background/aims As part of the UK and Ireland study of primary IOL implantation in children under 2, active surveillance has been undertaken to identify children aged <2 years undergoing surgery for cataract. Ascertainment through active surveillance has been compared to the routine NHS capture of episodes of surgery, in order to identify any weaknesses in routine data
collection.\n\nMethods NHS information centre data on the number of children undergoing lens extraction in the first two years of life were compared to the number of cases reported through active surveillance.\n\nResults In 2009 and 2010 in the United Kingdom, 483 episodes of lens extraction in children aged <2 years with lens-related disease were reported to NHS databases, compared to 490 cases of lens extraction for congenital / infantile cataract ascertained by the BCCIG through active surveillance. There was also disparity in the coding of procedures.\n\nConclusions There is evidence of incomplete and inaccurate reporting to NHS information centres of cataract surgery in children PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor drugs aged <2 years. If the accuracy of the coding could be improved BKM120 mw then the Hospital Activity Statistics offer a reasonable approach to monitoring trends in the NHS. Nevertheless, active surveillance clinical networks remain a more robust method of case ascertainment
“Although folic acid has been investigated for its potential to inhibit carcinogenesis, few epidemiologic studies have assessed the effects of intake of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, which may reduce cancer risk by acting as cofactors in folate metabolism or by other mechanisms. Using data from a large cohort of Canadian women, we examined the association of dietary intake of these nutrients, as well as intake of folate, methionine, and alcohol, with cancers of the breast, endometrium, ovary, colorectum, and lung ascertained during an average of 16.4 years of follow-up. After exclusions, the following numbers of incident cases were available for analysis: breast, n = 2491; endometrium, n = 426; ovary, n = 264; colorectum, n = 617; and lung, n = 358. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk of each cancer with individual nutrients and to explore possible effect modification by combinations of nutrients on cancer risk. Few significant associations of intake of individual B vitamins with the five cancers were observed.
However, late decrease in FDG uptake after completion of neoadjuvant therapy was predictive for pathological response and survival in only 2 of 6 Cyclopamine studies.\n\nConclusions. Measuring decrease in FDG uptake early during neoadjuvant therapy is most appealing, moreover because the observed range of values expressed as relative decrease to discriminate responding from nonresponding patients is very small. At present inter-institutional
comparison of results is difficult because several different normalization factors for FDG uptake are in use. Therefore, more research focusing on standardization of protocols and inter-institutional differences should be performed, before a PET-guided algorithm can be universally advocated.”
“Pathological laughter and crying (PLC) has been widely documented in the medical literature in association with various pathological
processes in the brainstem, particularly infarction. However, it remains poorly understood. The authors present a case report and analyze all the cases in the literature to try to localize a putative faciorespiratory GSK2879552 center. This 13-year-old girl developed a pontine abscess subsequent to sphenoid sinusitis. This increased in size despite antibiotic treatment, and she developed PLC. The abscess was then stereotactically aspirated, with resolution of the symptoms.\n\nA PubMed search of the term “pathological laughter and crying” was performed. From these papers all reported cases of PLC were identified. Cases without neuroimaging Prexasertib purchase were excluded. The remaining cases were categorized as small lesions permitting accurate localization within the pons, or large nonlocalizing lesions. All images of localizing lesions were magnified to the same size and placed on a grid. From this an area of maximal overlap was identified. The authors identified 7 cases of small localizing lesions with adequate imaging. The area of maximal overlap was in the region of the anterior paramedian pons. All the lesions involved this region of the pons. There were 28 further reports of large lesions that either resulted in gross compressive
distortion of the pons or diffusely infiltrated it, and thus, although implicating involvement of a pontine center, did not allow for localization of a specific region of the pons.\n\nThe authors report a case of PLC caused by a pontine abscess. Symptoms were reversible with stereotactically assisted aspiration and antibiotic administration. Analysis of the lesions reported in the literature showed a pattern toward a regulatory center in the pons. The most consistently involved region was in the anterior paramedian pons, and this may be the site of a faciorespiratory center. (DOI: 10.3171/2011.8.PEDS11265)”
“Advanced cancer patients are managed by palliative care and its main aim is to provide best possible quality of life to the patients by symptom management.
Specifically, CD91 is phosphorylated in response to HSPs in a unique pattern and phospho-CD91 triggers signalling
cascades to activate nuclear factor-kappa B. Each HSP-CD91 interaction on APCs stimulates a unique cytokine profile, which dictates priming of specific Th cell subsets. Thus, in a transforming growth factor-beta tumour microenvironment, immunization with CRT, but not gp96 or hsp70, primes Th17-cell responses in a CD91-dependent manner. These results are important for development of T-cell responses in situ in tumour-bearing hosts and for vaccination against cancer and infectious disease.”
“Previous this website studies demonstrated that chemotherapy-induced changes in tumor glucose metabolism measured with F-18-FDG PET identify patients who benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and those who do not. The prognosis for chemotherapy metabolic nonresponders is poorer than for metabolic responders. Therefore, we initiated this prospective trial to improve the clinical outcome of metabolic nonresponders using a salvage neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. VX-770 datasheet Methods: Fifty-six patients
with locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction were included. Tumor glucose uptake was assessed by F-18-FDG PET before chemotherapy and 14 d after initiation of chemotherapy. PET nonresponders received salvage neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, whereas metabolic responders received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for 3 mo before surgery. Results: Thirty-three patients were metabolic responders, and 23 were nonresponders. Resection was performed on 54 patients. R0 resection rate was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66%-91%) in metabolic responders and 70% (95% CI, 49%-84%) in metabolic nonresponders (P = 0.51). Major histologic remissions were observed in 12 metabolic responders (36%; 95% CI, 22%-53%) and 6 nonresponders LY2606368 (26%; 95% CI, 13%-46%). One-year progression-free rate was 74% +/- 8% in PET responders and 57% +/- 10% in metabolic nonresponders (log rank test, P = 0.035). One-year overall survival was comparable between the
groups (similar to 80%), and 2-y overall survival was estimated to be 71% +/- 8% in metabolic responders and 42% +/- 11% in PET nonresponders (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.87-4.24; P = 0.10). Conclusion: This prospective study showed the feasibility of a PET-guided treatment algorithm. However, by comparing the groups of nonresponding patients in the current trial and the previous published MUNICON (Metabolic response evalUatioN for Individualisation of neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Esophageal and esophagogastric adeNocarcinoma) I trial, increased histopathologic response was observed after salvage radiochemotherapy, but the primary endpoint of the study to increase the R0 resection rate was not met. The prognosis of the subgroup of PET nonresponders remains poor, indicating their different tumor biology.