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“Precise Outcome prediction is crucial to providing optimal cancer care across the spectrum of solid cancers. Clinically-useful tools to predict risk of adverse events (metastases, recurrence), however, remain deficient. Here, we report an approach to predict the risk of prostate cancer recurrence, at the time of initial diagnosis, using a combination of emerging chemical imaging, a diagnostic protocol that focuses simultaneously on the tumor and its microenvironment, and data analysis of frequent patterns in molecular
expression. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging was employed to record the structure and molecular content from tumors prostatectomy. We analyzed data from URMC-099 mouse AZD2014 a patient cohort that is mid-grade dominant – which is the largest cohort of patients in the modern era and in whom prognostic methods are largely ineffective. Our approach outperforms the two widely used tools, Kattan nomogram and CAPRA-S
score in a head-to-head comparison for predicting risk of recurrence. Importantly, the approach provides a histologic basis to the prediction that identifies chemical and morphologic features in the tumor microenvironment that is independent of conventional clinical information, opening the door to similar advances in other solid tumors.”
“RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma (RET/PTC) oncoproteins result from the in-frame fusion of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase domain with protein dimerization motifs encoded by heterologous genes. Here, we show that RET/PTC stimulates the beta-catenin
pathway. By stimulating PI3K/AKT and Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), RFT/PTC promotes glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3 beta) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK3 beta-mediated NH(2)-terminal beta-catenin (Ser33/Ser37/Thr41) phosphorylation. In addition, RET/PTC physically interacts with beta-catenin and increases its phosphotyrosine content. The increased free pool of S/T(nonphospho)/Y(phospho)beta-catenin is stabilized as a result of the reduced binding affinity for the Axin/GSK3 beta complex and activates the transcription factor T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor. Moreover, through the ERK pathway, RET/PTC stimulates cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and promotes the formation CB-839 mechanism of action of a beta-catenin-CREB-CREB-binding protein/p300 transcriptional complex. Transcriptional complexes containing beta-catenin are recruited to the cyclin D1 promoter and a cyclin D1 gene promoter reporter is active in RET/PTC-expressing cells. Silencing of beta-catenin by small interfering RNA inhibits proliferation of RET/PTC-transformed PC Cl3 thyrocytes, whereas a constitutively active form of beta-catenin stimulates autonomous proliferation of thyroid cells. Thus, multiple signaling events downstream from RET/PTC converge on beta-catenin to stimulate cell proliferation.