Results: As well
as the expected cytoplasmic occupancy of PfSHMTc during all stages, localization into the mitochondrion and apicoplast occurred in a stage-specific manner. Although early trophozoites lacked visible organellar PfSHMTc, a significant percentage of parasites showed such fluorescence during the mid-to-late trophozoite and schizont stages. In the case of the mitochondrion, the majority of parasites selleck chemicals llc in these stages at any given time showed no marked PfSHMTc fluorescence, suggesting that its occupancy of this organelle is of limited duration. PfSHMTm showed a distinctly more pronounced mitochondrial location through most of the erythrocytic cycle and GFP-tagging of its N-terminal region confirmed the predicted presence of a mitochondrial signal sequence. Within the apicoplast, a majority of mitotic schizonts showed a marked concentration of PfSHMTc, whose localization in this organelle was less restricted than for the mitochondrion and persisted from the late trophozoite to the post-mitotic
stages. PfSHMTm showed a broadly similar distribution across the cycle, but with a distinctive punctate accumulation towards the ends of elongating apicoplasts. In very selleck chemicals late post-mitotic schizonts, both PfSHMTc and PfSHMTm were concentrated in the central region of the parasite that becomes the residual body on erythrocyte lysis
and merozoite release.
Conclusions: Both PfSHMTc and PfSHMTm show dynamic, stage-dependent localization among the different compartments of the parasite and sequence analysis suggests they may also reversibly associate with each other, a factor that may be critical to folate cofactor function, given the apparent lack of enzymic activity of PfSHMTm.”
“N-carboxymethyl chitosans (N-CMC) were synthesized from chitosan in water with chloroacetic acid instead of comparatively expensive glyoxylic acid. The optimal reaction conditions were 90 degrees C and 4 h with a ratio of chloroacetic acid to chitosan 5 : 1(w/w). The degree of substitution of product exceeded 1.32. The N-carboxymethyl chitosans were characterized by XRD, FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and the water solubility and isoelectric Batimastat datasheet point of N-CMC with different degrees of substitution were determined. FTIR and (1)H-NMR data has confirmed that the substitution reaction occurred on the amino groups. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 3282-3285, 2011″
“A sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas cv. ‘Jinhongmi’) MADS-box protein cDNA (SRD1) has been isolated from an early stage storage root cDNA library. The role of the SRD1 gene in the formation of the storage root in sweetpotato was investigated by an expression pattern analysis and characterization of SRD1-overexpressing (ox) transgenic sweetpotato plants.