The trial could then continue without the placebo group Unblinde

The trial could then continue without the placebo group. Unblinded data review by a data safety monitoring board with interim analysis of study results and safety issues is desirable. This is especially important for multicenter site studies. If a placebo is used in a study, the GW 572016 informed consent form must include all of the following information: The subjects must be informed that they may be given a placebo. A clear lay definition of the term ??placebo?? must be given to the subjects. The rationale for using a placebo must be explained to the subjects. If applicable, the subjects must be informed of any viable medical alternatives to being placed on placebo. The duration of time that a subject will be on a placebo, degree of discomfort, and potential effects of not receiving medication must all be explained.

Any consequences of delayed active treatment must be explained to the subjects. A statement in the risk section of the consent that the condition of the subject may worsen while on placebo should be included. A discussion in the benefits section that subjects who receive placebo will not receive the same benefit as those who receive active treatment if that treatment is effective should also be included. SUMMARY There are valid scientific and ethical considerations for using a control group in a clinical trial. Placebo-controlled trials are justifiable when they are supported by sound methodologic consideration and when their use does not expose research participants to excessive risk of harm.

Consideration should be given to the ??best-available therapy?? control groups in the evaluation of a new therapy or intervention Entinostat over an existing therapy. Investigators should bear in mind that one should not sacrifice the scientific merit of a trial to include the best-available therapy control group as long as the placebo control group poses little harm to the participants and, importantly, the trial offers potential benefit to the subjects. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: None declared.

The objective of this survey was to seek opinion from clinical research professionals on their perceptions of ethical issues in clinical research in India. To achieve the same, a survey questionnaire was developed and mailed to about 500 clinical research professionals. A follow-up to receive the response was also done by way of mails/telephone calls.

The survey questionnaire covered 12 items which were: Listing the top three ethical selleck kinase inhibitor issues in the conduct of clinical trials in India. Readiness of the ECs on six parameters (rating on a scale of 1-10; 1 being non-competent and 10 being competent). Independence as the hallmark of EC functioning (rating on a scale of 1-10; 1 being non-independent and 10 being independent) and factors that posed barriers to independence.

There is considerable controversy related to the functional link

There is considerable controversy related to the functional link between the insoluble A?? residing in plaques and cognitive dysfunction kinase inhibitor Calcitriol in AD [66-69] or in normal aged individuals [70]. However, the available post mortem evidence indicates significant associations between amyloid pathology and cognition in AD patients [6,71-73], with total amyloid load or burden being the most reliable and powerful manifestation of clinically diagnosed dementia [74]. While A?? plaque burden does not likely represent the immediate causal factor underlying dementia, our results suggest that it might be a robust surrogate marker indicating the severity of the impairment, at least in the fear conditioning paradigm applied in pre-clinical research using mouse models.

Conclusions The advantage of applying the fear conditioning paradigm to evaluate cognitive dysfunction in human studies is that the test focuses on nondeclarative, unconscious memory, which depends on frontal and temporal regions, including cortical sensory processing areas, the thalamus, and the amygdala [75-77]. Several studies demonstrated that in humans fear conditioned memory also depends on the same neural structures that are affected at the early stage of AD [78-81]. Also, unlike declarative or conscious memory, nondeclarative, implicit memory depends less on subjective recall and recognition of information [82,83], providing a better comparative platform between pre-clinical studies involving animal models, and clinical studies of human dementia with neurodegeneration.

Although few studies have demonstrated that fear conditioned memory is impaired in AD [84] and in frontotemporal lobar degeneration [85] (of note, an unconditional stimulus used in these studies was a one second burst of 100 db white noise presented through headphones), the association between the impairment in implicit memory and amyloid plaque load in AD patients assessed in vivo [86] has yet to be addressed. Abbreviations AD: Alzheimer’s disease; A??: amyloid beta; ANOVA: analysis of variance; APP: amyloid precursor protein; CR: conditioned response; CS: conditioned stimulus; CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; CV: coefficient of variation; c.p.s: clicks per second; FA: formic acid; FC: fear conditioning; NS: non-significant; nTg: non-transgenic mice; SEM: standard error of the mean; SDS: sodium dodecyl GSK-3 sulfate; Tg: transgenic mice; UR: unconditioned response; this US: unconditioned stimulus. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions CJ conceived and supervised the study, analyzed the data and prepared the manuscript.

This result was partially confirmed and extended in an independen

This result was partially confirmed and extended in an independent study with a larger sample population and wider patient demographics. This follow-up study reported a significant association between the low-activity variant of DBH alone and AD risk that was mostly attributable to males over the age of 75, and also replicated the interaction between DBH and IL-1A polymorphisms [45]. Interestingly, SNPs that are thought to increase adrenergic signaling have also been linked to a risk for developing AD. Individuals homozygous for the C allele of ADRB1 (the ??1-adrenergic receptor) and the the T allele of GNB3 (the G protein ??3 subunit gene), which are associated with increased cAMP levels and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, have an increased risk for AD [46].

A Chinese case-control study found that a ??2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism which enhances responsiveness is also associated with the risk of sporadic late-onset AD [47]. These studies highlight the complicated nature of noradrenergic signaling in AD; activation of some receptor subtypes may suppress neuroinflammation and neuropathology, while other receptors may exacerbate aspects of the disease. Recent biomarker studies in living subjects have also confirmed a proinflammatory state in AD [48-51]. Of note, increased proinflammatory and decreased anti-inflammatory markers account for the majority of changes detectable in a large panel of cerebrospinal fluid analytes in MCI and AD [49,50]. By promoting proinflammatory responses, suppressing anti-inflammatory responses and impairing A?? degradation and clearance, LC degeneration and NE loss can therefore be considered a triple threat to AD pathogenesis.

Treatments that increase norepinephrine in AD animal models ameliorate AD-like pathology and cognitive decline In vitro and animal studies have provided the most compelling evidence that increasing NE could have beneficial effects on both AD neuropathology and cognitive symptoms. In vitro challenge of human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) with A??42 induced cytotoxicity and provoked a neuroinflammatory response that was dose-dependently attenuated by NE [52]. Treatment with cAMP or forskolin, a protein kinase A activator, had similar effects, suggesting that NE’s protective effects were regulated, at least in part, via stimulation of ??-adrenergic receptors and the corresponding activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway [52].

Another in vitro study in hNT neuronal and primary hippocampal cultures revealed a neuroprotective effect of NE against both A??42- and A??25-35-induced increases in oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death [53]. The neuroprotective effects Batimastat were mediated by activation of ??-adrenoceptor/cAMP signaling and also required the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropo myosin-related kinase B pathway, although some ??-receptor-independent effects of NE persisted [53].

A patient with transmigrated mandibular

A patient with transmigrated mandibular selleck catalog right canine and impacted two lower incisors probably related to earlier trauma was presented in case 4. But, unfortunately, it is not sure whether these teeth were central or lateral incisor without surgery. According to Camileri,3 impacted mandibular lower incisor teeth might be called as transmigrated teeth. This case showed that eruption abnormalities might affect more than one type of tooth.16 While most of the transmigrated mandibular canines occurred unilaterally,1,2,4,5,7,9,11,17,19 only 9% of them were bilateral.1,6 Although most of the bilateral transmigrated canines lied horizontally, there were no bilateral transmigrated teeth which were in vertical position. In case 3, while 33 lied vertically in the midline, 43 lied vertically between apices of the 41 and 42 because of inadequate space to cross.

It can not be suggested that both canines crossed the midline completely. In bilateral transmigration cases which canines lied in vertical position, it is impossible for both canines to cross the midline simultaneously. Transmigrated mandibular canines were classified according to Mupparapu.17 It could be summarized as; Type 1: The impacted canine is mesioangularly acrossing the midline, labial, or lingual to the anterior teeth with the crown portion of the tooth crossing the midline. Type 2: The canine is horizontally impacted near the inferior border of the mandible below the apices of the incisors. Type 3: The canine has erupted either mesial or distal to the opposite canine.

Type 4: The canine is horizontally impacted near the inferior border of the mandible below the apices of either premolars or molars on the opposite side. Type 5: The canine is positioned vertically in the midline with the long axis of the tooth crossing the midline. Mupparapu��s classification consisted of single transmigrated canine. In case 3, bilateral impacted canines in vertical position located in the midline was in accordance with Type 5. Besides the option of surgical removal, transplantation and surgical exposure with orthodontic alignment are treatment alternatives for the transmigrated teeth.2 A long term follow up without symptoms may be an alternative option for patients who are afraid of surgical processes. Migrated tooth must be detected in early stages of its migration for orthodontic treatment.

If it can not be detected early, further treatment alternatives will lessen and the case might get worse. Surgical extraction is more appropriate than others in case of a pathological situation. Consequently, decision of treatment options relates to pathological conditions, location and position of the transmigrated tooth and patient��s desire. In present study, only one Dacomitinib of our 4 patients preferred surgical treatment (in case 2) and others went under follow up. The transmigrated canine, which was the subject of case 1, located near the mandibular canal.

These were the same body parts

These were the same body parts selleck chemical that showed a higher prevalence of lesions in our study, suggesting that unassisted stretching exercises before surfing do not prevent injuries. On the other hand, warming up performed before physical exercise can increase the speed and force of muscle contraction, due to the increase in metabolic reactions, oxygen supply to the muscles by hemoglobin and acceleration of the speed of nerve conduction. Such metabolic reactions contribute to the reduction of the reaction time and viscosity of the muscle, which decreases the likelihood of lesions. 21 , 22 When analyzing the importance of warming up and stretching in the sport, emphasis has been done to the importance of warming up before performing a sport activity and stretching after practice.

23 In the present study, it was found that stretching was more performed than warming up before surfing and most of the investigated surfers did not do any kind of exercise after sport, raising the hypothesis that such behavior increases the chance of occurrence of injuries among surfers in the seacoast of Paran��, requiring continuing education as a way to prevent injuries. Thirty-five percent of the surfers participating in this study did not interrupt their sport activities for health treatments. Other authors have studied surfers of UK, in which most of the injuries are of low complexity, that is, do not require hospital admission for treatment. 24 These authors also recommend the importance of preventing injuries by use and adapting individual protective equipment.

6 , 24 Moreover, most surfers of the present study reported the need to interrupt sport for 1 to 3 months. The most common treatments reported were medication, stretching and resistance exercises. Other authors have also indicated drug therapies for the treatment of wound infections and tympanic lesions. 25 The present study has some limitations with respect to the adapted questionnaire, in which the terms contusion and muscular lesion were used as different types of injuries. Contusion, depending on its intensity, can cause muscle injury. In addition, the terms warming up and stretching were also used, whereas, depending on the type and duration of stretching exercises, it can be considered warm up exercise.

However, before completing the questionnaire it was explained to the participants that stretching refers to static stretching exercise lasting for at least 10 seconds and that warming Entinostat should be considered a walk, run or bike ride lasting for at least 10 minutes. Therefore, it is suggested for future studies adaptation of the terms, as well as construct validity for the use of questionnaires that aim to assess the prevalence of injuries arising from surfing. Another suggestion for investigation studies on the causes of injuries in surfers would be to conduct monitoring of surfers through a prospective longitudinal study, with questionnaires applied at short intervals.

When performing the SSRO, the exact location of the lingula is cr

When performing the SSRO, the exact location of the lingula is crucial, since the osteotomy is performed at the region around the lingula of the mandible during the medial horizontal osteotomy.11 We also morphometrically determined the position of the lingula. MATERIALS AND METHODS The maxillary Regorafenib molecular weight arteries were dissected bilaterally using a lateral infratemporal approach in 17 formalin-fixed adult cadavers (14 males and 3 females, total 34 sides) under a dissection microscope (Stemi 2000, Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). The mean age of the cadavers was 54 (range 23�C76 years). The covering soft tissues, superficial lobe of the parotid gland, and masseter muscle were removed to unearth the mandibular condyle. The lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible was exposed along with the external carotid artery and the origin of the maxillary artery.

Following the removal of the zygomatic arches using an oscillating saw, a mandibular osteotomy was performed, while making sure that the TMJ and the attachment of the lateral pterygoid muscle to the pterygoid fovea were preserved. The most inferior point of the articular eminence, the medial cortex of the mandibular ramus, the inferior border of pterygoid fovea, and the mandibular notch were the bony landmarks selected to be studied with the maxillary artery. The topographical relationships between the MAs and these landmarks were evaluated. The distances between the defined landmarks and the maxillary arteries were measured using a digital caliper. In order to determine the exact localization, the condylar level of the MAs was investigated.

An imaginary line passing transversely from the inferior border of the pterygoid fovea at the middle of the neck of the mandible was decided as midcervical level. The regions above and below the line were defined as supracervical and infracervical, respectively (Figure 1). Figure 1. Green lines indicate the measured vertical distances between the MA and selected landmarks. Maxillary artery (MA); Articular eminence (AE); Mandibular notch (MN); Midcervical (M); Supracervical (S); Infracervical (I). The location of the mandibular lingula was determined by measuring the distance between the tip of the lingula and the sigmoid notch, the inferior border of the ramus, the anterior margin of the ramus, and the posterior margin of the ramus.

All data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, with P<.05 accepted as significant. Data are presented as mean values �� SD. RESULTS The MAs coursed horizontally medial to the ramus of the mandible immediately after emerging from the external Brefeldin_A carotid artery and then ran superficial to the inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle in all specimens. The average vertical distances between the MA and the most inferior point of the articular eminence, the medial cortex of the mandibular ramus, the inferior border of the pterygoid fovea, and the mandibular notch were determined as 1.67��0.48 mm, 5.38��2.

As a consequence of bile duct anatomic variations,

As a consequence of bile duct anatomic variations, Ixazomib Ki SLT requires a precise knowledge of the liver anatomy [3, 4]. The challenge of this procedure is represented by a preoperative radiological assessment of the biliary anatomy often unavailable at the donor’s hospital. Thus the risk of biliary duct injury during the splitting procedure is usually considered higher than during living donor procedure. In this report we describe an uncommon late biliary complication that occurred after SLT and was successfully treated by a multidisciplinary approach. 2. Case Report A 63-year-old male with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis was referred for liver transplantation to our institution. We performed a conventional A/P SLT with in situ technique providing the left lateral segment for a child (segments II-III) and leaving the right lobe graft (segment I-IV-V-VI-VII-VIII) for an adult recipient.

The celiac trunk was left on the left graft while the right hepatic artery remained on the right graft. The common hepatic bile duct was left on the right graft. The patient was transplanted using the piggy-back technique without a veno-venous bypass. The biliary tract was reconstructed performing a duct-to-duct anastomosis using a T-tube by our standard technique previously described [5]. A cholangiography through the T-tube was performed on postoperative day 14, and the T-tube was clamped before patient discharge. Three months after A/PSLT the T-tube was removed after a cholangiography with normal findings.

One year after transplant the patient showed abnormal liver function tests, hyperbilirubinemia, leukocytosis, and elevated g-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and mild elevation in alanine transaminase (ALT). The patient underwent a doppler ultrasound that showed (a patent hepatic artery) an intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and an anastomotic biliary stricture. These findings were confirmed by a magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC). The anastomotic stricture was treated by stenting the main biliary duct during an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoghaphy (ERCP) without any evidence of intrahepatic biliary dilatation. After this procedure the patient was submitted to a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) showing a complete obstruction of segments VI and VII biliary branches near the duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis (Figure 1).

A percutaneous biliary drain was left inside the distended biliary branches. The patient was discharged leaving the external biliary drain open allowing bile drainage and an easy access for repeated radiologic treatment and an internal Entinostat stent in the common bile duct. Three months later the patient underwent a surgical revision because of repeated episodes of cholangitis. During surgery an intraoperative cholangiography was performed through the biliary drain confirming a bile duct dilatation at the level of segments VI and VII.

The only independent predictive risk factor is the baseline preop

The only independent predictive risk factor is the baseline preoperative hemoglobin level. Patient requiring P-RBC transfusions had more complications in terms of higher infections and hemodialysis need, prolonging ICU and hospital stays. Maximum efforts must be focused on developing novel strategies for improving hemoglobin levels enzyme inhibitor during waiting list time to improve early outcome Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries after transplantation. Conflict of Interests The authors of this paper have no conflict of interests to disclose. Acknowledgment Nicol��s Goldaracena is an HPB and Liver Transplant Fellow at Hospital Alem��n of Buenos Aires and has financial support Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from the Argentinean Liver Cancer Foundation (Fundaci��n Argentina C��ncer de H��gado).

Abbreviations LT: Liver transplant RBCs: Red blood cells HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma FFP: Fresh frozen plasma P-RBC: Perioperative red blood cells ICU: Intensive care unit MELD: Model for end-stage liver disease CVP: Central venous pressure AST: Aspartate aminotransferase ALT: Alanine aminotransferase Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries PNF: Primary nonfunction PDF: Primary dysfunction HCV: Hepatitis C virus BMI: Body mass index RCT: Randomized controlled trials.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the USA, Europe, and Japan, accounting for 47%�C49%, 56%, and 75% of cases, respectively [1, 2]. HCC causes >600,000 deaths annually worldwide and is the most common primary liver cancer [3]. Definitive treatment for HCC is surgical resection when possible or liver transplantation for patients with end-stage liver disease and liver tumors.

In USA, transplant guidelines stipulate that Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries eligibility for liver transplantation is determined by the patient’s liver tumor(s) meeting the Milan criteria (a single tumor ��5cm in diameter or up to 3 tumors with individual diameters ��3cm and no macrovascular invasion) [4]. Unfortunately, the recurrence of HCC is a major cause of mortality in surgically treated patients [5]. There is no standard therapy for patients who are at high risk for HCC recurrence. Hence, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the recurrence of HCC post LT is necessary to develop an efficient surveillance Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries protocol and seek new potential therapies. Gene expression profiling is best performed on fresh or frozen tissue to lessen the degradation of RNA.

However, collecting and storing this tissue are burdensome AV-951 and costly, and obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for longitudinal studies can be unsuccessful. Sample sizes are typically small, and collection requires years of time. In contrast, all clinical pathology laboratories have huge storage files containing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Formalin fixation has been used for several decades for preserving tissue. FFPE tissue would supply a huge resource for genomic studies to utilize previously collected samples with long-term clinical records.

2 4 Outcome Measures Donor and recipient demographics and the in

2.4. Outcome Measures Donor and recipient demographics and the incidences of intra- and postoperative complications in the donor and recipient were assessed. In the recipient, the incidences of graft thrombosis, graft function, and graft survival were recorded. The total ischaemic time was defined from the start of arterial clamping of the donor vessels to reperfusion of the kidney. Recipient graft function was measured daily using levels of serum creatinine, and eGFR on day 7, 1 month, and 12 months after transplant. Delayed graft function (DGF) was defined as any form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) needed in the first 7 days after transplant. Acute rejection was diagnosed by histopathological examination of a renal biopsy and treated with 3 �� 0.5 grams methylprednisolone for 3 consecutive days.

Resistant rejection was treated with antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Graft and patient survival were monitored up to 12 months after transplant. 2.5. Statistics Statistical Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries analysis was performed using an integrated measurement using Excel (Microsoft, Reading) and Graph Pad Prism 5 (Graph Pad Instat, San Diego, CA). Results Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries were displayed as mean �� standard deviation. Mean data was compared using the appropriate t-test or contingency test (Fisher’s exact). P �� 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. 3. Results 3.1. Demographics Donor and recipient demographics are outlined Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in Table 1. There was no significant difference in the donor demographics between the groups. There was a similar amount of right and left kidneys donated in each group (P = 0.386).

More kidneys in the heparin group had multiple arteries compared to the nonheparinised group (P = 0.027). Several kidneys in each of the groups had dual renal veins Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries (P = 0.473). Table 1 Donor and recipient demographics, left and right kidney, and renal vasculature. 3.2. Intraoperative and Postoperative Outcomes 3.2.1. Donor There was no significant difference in the duration of warm ischaemia (heparin 5 �� 3 versus nonheparinised 5 �� 3min; P = 1.000) (range 1 to 13 min versus 2�C8min) or in the total ischaemic time (heparin 306 �� 80 versus nonheparinised 295 �� 60min; P = 0.189) between the groups. The warm ischaemic time was significantly longer in kidneys with multiple arteries compared to those with single vessels (6 �� 2.7versus 4.0 �� 1.3min; P = 0.0001).

Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries There were no intra- or immediate postoperative complications in either of the groups associated with bleeding. There Batimastat was no significant difference in haemoglobin levels between the groups pre- or postoperative (P > 0.05; Table 2). Levels fell significantly day 1 postoperatively in both groups and remained stable until discharge (Table 2). Table 2 Haemoglobin levels preoperative and postoperative days 1, 2 and 3 in the heparin, and nonheparinised groups.

01,0 01,0 01,0 01,0 01,0 01,0 01,0 01), gamma = c(0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1

01,0.01,0.01,0.01,0.01,0.01,0.01,0.01), gamma = c(0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1, NA,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1), taua despite = 2.0, taup = 1.0, tauc = 0.5) list(alpha = c(0.05,0.05,0.05,0.05,0.05,0.05,0.05,0.05,0.05,0.05, 0.05,0.05,0.05), beta = c(NA,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0), taua = 1.0, taup = 0.5, tauc = 1.5, gamma = c(0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1, NA,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.1)) Acknowledgements Financial support was received from the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries European Commission (Directorate of SANCO, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy du Luxembourg) through the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries EUNICE Network (European Network for Information on Cancer Epidemiology, IARC, Lyon, France), the DWTC/SSTC (Service for Science, Culture and Technology, Brussels, Belgium), IWT (Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (through the Unit of Health Economics and Modelling Infectious Diseases, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp; project number 060081) and the National Cancer Plan, via the Belgian Cancer Centre.

According to the World Health Organization [1], health risks are unfairly distributed in our so-ciety. The most disadvantaged social groups (in terms of income, schooling or socio-economic group) are more exposed to health risks. An international comparison of 11 European countries revealed major social inequalities in subjective health. These inequalities are also observed in mortality Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and morbidity rates [2]. Several lines of explanation have been explored: initially, these inequalities were put down to individual differences in harmful habits (smoking, alcohol consumption and poor diet), stress factors Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and psychosocial resources.

However, research indicated that Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the impact of harmful habits was relatively low [3,4]. A second line of explanation took interest in contextual health factors, that is to say lifestyle characteristics, for individuals are not in fact randomly distributed in space, and habitable space tends to be subject to socio-economic stratification. This second, lifestyle approach considers several aspects such as social capital, accessibility of public services and exposure to environmental risks [5]. In this study, we will be considering an environmental factor that is rarely featured in studies of health inequalities, that is to say exposure to noise pollution [6].

Vulnerable social groups are more likely to live in less favourable environments. The literature in this area has been mainly concerned with the role of air pollution, particularly Carfilzomib because this may aggravate morbidity following allergies [7-9]. Up until now, very few researchers have examined the impact of noise pollution on these same inequalities. According to Job (1996) there might be a causal link between exposure to noise pollution and bad health, although this link has not yet been definitively established.