1% arabinose, followed by incubation
at 30°C for 15 min. In the case of the LN2666 derivative, 0.1% arabinose was added to the culture followed by incubation at 30°C for 15 min. The dyes DAPI and FM4-64 were added to the culture to label DNA and cell membranes, respectively, and the cultures incubated for a further 15 min.. Aliquots of the culture were directly deposited on glass slides covered with a layer of 1% agarose containing M9 medium, and observed by phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy using an inverted Olympus X81 microscope carrying a 100× oil-immersion Olympus lens (N.A. of 1.3) and a Roper CoolsnapHQ CCD camera. Images were acquired using Metamorph software. Measurement of foci position Using Metamorph software, images of cell membranes, YFP-ParB signals, DNA and phase-contrast were artificially coloured in red, green and blue and merged. The Linescan function was used to analyze fluorescence signal intensities. Lines were TGF-beta inhibitor drawn across the long and short axes of each cell and for each pixel of the lines, fluorescence intensities were measured for membrane (FM4-64, red), DNA (DAPI, blue) and YFP-ParB (green) signals. Data were plotted as intensity (grey level) vs. pixel distance along each line (Figure 1B). Along both axes, cell boundaries PLX 4720 and the centre of YFP-ParB foci can be precisely determined as the positions of maximum intensity of the fluorescence
signals (red and green arrowheads, respectively, in Figure 1B). Data were collected and calculated using Excel software. Apparent
distances between the foci and the membrane were always measured to the closest pole (cell length) or parietal membrane (cell width) and the obtained values are reported as ratios relative the total cell length or diameter, respectively, such that the values are necessarily between 0 and 0.5. Cells were classified Liothyronine Sodium into populations according to the number of foci they contain. Cell length values were sampled into five cell slices of equal length. For cell diameter slices, we considered the E. coli cell to be a cylinder, and its transversal section a circle. The apparent distance of foci to the closest parietal membrane was then considered as its projection on the circle radius. The circle quarter was divided into five slices of equal area and the measured positions of foci along the transversal section were classified into theses slices. The measured cell diameter was 0.89 +/- 0.12 μm on average (428 cells), corresponding to slices ranging from 0.14 μm (for the most peripheral) to 0.07 μm (for the most central). If foci were randomly positioned along the cell width, they would be expected to be evenly distributed among the cell slices. Calculation of ARN-509 models and statistical analysis of datasets To construct models of positioning across the width of the cell, we first reasoned that in the case of random positioning, the probability of finding a focus in a given cell slice is proportional only to the area of this slice (i.e.