The major compound in the chloroform extract was purified by crystallization followed by column chromatography to yield yellow crystals. Furthermore, usnic acid (UA) was evaluated for its larvicidal potential. The major compound in the chloroform extract, UA, exhibited LC(50) of 6.6 ppm (6.1 to 7.0 ppm). Therefore, UA is most likely the active principle in C. substellata. UA showed to be toxic to A. salina, a reference organism in assays to evaluate the potential Tariquidar price toxicity hazard to invertebrates in ecosystems.”
survival, and fecundity of the predator, Cybocephalus flavocapins Smith, reared on its host Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, were studied at 24 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h under laboratory conditions. Developmental periods for egg, larval, and pupal stages were 6.4, 12.1 and 14.3 d, respectively. The mean longevity of adults was 85.1 d. Raw life history data of all individuals were pooled and analyzed according to Dibutyryl-cAMP the age-stage, two-sex life table theory.
The intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.05 d(-1) the finite rate of increase (lambda) was 1.05 d(-1), the net reproductive rate (R(0)) was 29.1 offspring, and the mean generation time (T) was 63.3 d. When we incorporated the age-stage variability of predation rate with the two-sex life table, our results indicated that the predation rates of larvae and adults were 743 eggs and 1595 scales, respectively. The net predation rate of C. flavocapitis is 1874 scales. Additionally, we compared life table results of C. flavocapitis with those of a previous life table study on GSK1904529A Cybocephalus nipponicus because both species are currently used for the biological control of A. yasumatsui in Taiwan. (C) Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society, 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A series of 4-aminoquinolinyl-chalcone
amides 11-19 were synthesized through condensation of carboxylic acid-functionalized chalcone with aminoquinolines, using 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole as coupling agent. These compounds were screened against the chloroquine sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their cytotoxicity towards the WI-38 cell line of normal human fetal lung fibroblast was determined. All compounds were found active, with IC50 values ranging between 0.04-0.5 mu M and 0.07-1.8 mu M against 3D7 and W2, respectively. They demonstrated moderate to high selective activity towards the parasitic cells in the presence of mammalian cells. However, amide 15, featuring the 1,6-diaminohexane linker, despite possessing predicted unfavourable aqueous solubility and absorption properties, was the most active of all the amides tested.