Cells were then washed twice with serum and phenol red free RPMI

Cells were then washed twice with serum and phenol red free RPMI before 5 μM 7-ethoxyresorufin and 20 μM dicumarol were SP600125 added to the wells. Subsequent fluorescence readouts were recorded continuously at 37 °C

in a Synergy HT microplate reader (λex = 530 nm, λem = 585 nm) and the respetive activity of CYP1 enyzmes was calculated based on a calibration curve with resorufin. Protein concentrations were measured using a BCA protein kit (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). All measurements were performed as 6-fold replicates. Protein stability of firefly luciferase (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) was assayed by fluorescent thermal shift (Niesen et al., 2007 and Vedadi et al., 2006). Assays were performed in 96-well PCR plates using 3.6 μM of protein, 2 mM ATP and SYPRO orange in 50 mM tris–acetate, pH 7.6. Ligands, such as TCC, were added as indicated. Subsequent thermal shifts ranged from 25 °C to 99 °C at an increment of 1 °C/min and were recorded using the ROX filter set of a HT7500 PCR cycler (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Data were analysed and the temperature of half-maximal denaturation (Tm) was calculated using the MS Excel spreadsheets as provided by (available at ftp:// ftp.sgc.ox.ac.uk /pub /biophysics) ( Niesen www.selleckchem.com/products/3-methyladenine.html et al., 2007 and Vedadi et al., 2006. All experiments were done in triplicate at least. Plotted error bars refer to

the standard error of the mean (SEM) and a two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to assess significance. Respective p-values of mafosfamide p < 0.05 are indicated by an asterisk as appropriate. Concerns about an androgenic potential of TCC are mainly

fuelled by results obtained from luciferase-based reporter screens (Ahn et al., 2008; Christen et al., 2010). However, the suitability of such systems as sole indicators for potential endocrine activity is disputed (Diel et al., 1999, Baker, 2001 and Thorne et al., 2010). To investigate the androgenic potential of TCC this study therefore supplemented a commonly used AR-sensitive cellular luciferase assay with quantitative RT-PCR. The concentration of TCC used in the assays was 1 μM as this corresponds to the maximal levels realistically expected in human blood (SCCP, 2005; Schebb et al., 2012). Initially the reported androgen mediated amplification of luciferase-activity by TCC was reproduced using a MDA-kb2 reporter cell line (Fig. 2). In contrast to the T47D-ARE cell line used previously (Ahn et al., 2008) this cell line originates from human MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells which were transfected with a MMTV.luciferase.neo reporter construct. The respective reporter is negative for ER but maintains endogenous expression of the AR (Christen et al., 2010). The molecular background thus allows the monitoring of AR-responsive genes, while the luciferase reporter will be responsive to stimulation of the AR as well as the GR.

However, these types of data are currently unavailable for seagra

However, these types of data are currently unavailable for seagrass bed, offshore pelagic, and deep-sea ecosystems; thus, it is difficult to use this criterion for EBSA selection for these ecosystems. Even in references regarding this criterion [35], the application of this criterion in the deep sea was considered difficult in many cases. INK128 As a result, criterion 2 is difficult to be employed in most ecosystems because

of a lack of data. This occurred in the case study on EBSA selection on a wider Asian regional scale (Uchifune et al. under review). This criterion does not need to include quantitative data from across the entire ocean, considering the underlying concept that includes qualitative information regarding breeding areas that are already known.

However, basic data collection on habitat use by major mobile species in Asian waters during their life histories, such as use of spawning grounds, is insufficient. Fisheries statistics can be used as substitutes for stock data regarding the kelp community. Although the availability of fine-scale reliable data is limited, rough spatial resolution, such as regional analysis, is better to avoid conflict between conservation and fisheries in this case. Research on animal tracking by bio-logging to investigate the movement of marine organisms has recently been increasing [37]. Data sharing and gathering after initial publication are useful to when utilizing these types of data for selecting important sites with respect to the life history of certain species. This is criterion is defined as an “area containing habitat for the survival selleck products and recovery of endangered, threatened or declining species or area with significant assemblages of such species,” [5]. This criterion targets threatened, endangered, or declining species and their habitats for consideration. As discussed for criterion 1, the selection of endangered species depends on the individual study areas. If the research target is limited to certain areas (e.g., within the Japanese coast as in the present study), locally endangered species should be used even if they are still abundant in other regions worldwide. Doxacurium chloride The present

research program used the area and the species number of endangered species listed in the IUCN red list as well as the endangered species list of the Ministry of the Environment of Japan. In the case of kelp forest ecosystems, the distributions of 5 kelp species listed in the Ministry of the Environment red list were used to rank the sites according to this criterion. For seagrass bed and coral reef ecosystems, both the Ministry of the Environment endangered species list and the IUCN red list can be used. However, these lists do not include any endangered species among offshore deep-sea chemosynthetic benthic organisms or oceanic plankters. Therefore, additional information on engendered species is required to apply this criterion.


measurements near CRS Lubiatowo were carried out usin


measurements near CRS Lubiatowo were carried out using a motor boat with a length of 5 m and a draught of 0.3 m. The boat’s position was determined using GPS Magellan. The StrataBox signals were recorded by the application of software StrataBox ver., enabling simultaneous registration of the seismo-acoustic data and the geographical coordinates of the points surveyed. Figure 5 shows a photograph of the boat and the StrataBox transducer (before being lowered into water). During the two-day long survey (19–20 May 2009) tens of files with seismo-acoustic signals were recorded. The aim of these measurements was to test the equipment and tune parameters (e.g. setting the optimal signal gain). The actual profiling survey Y-27632 was carried out on 20 May, in a direction approximately perpendicular to the shoreline, from the depth of about 13 m (starting point of the profile – 54°49.561′N, 17°49.823′E) to the nearshore shallow water region (end of the profile – 54°48.867′N, 17°50.322′E). The measured bathymetric cross-shore profile was found to have the same shape as the sea bottom transect shown in Figure 4. In the

area where bars occur (at depths less than 8 m), where considerable changes in the sea bed take place not just at the scale of years but at the scales of months and weeks, the measured depths were slightly different than the ones in Figure PI3K inhibitor 4. The maximum discrepancies between the sea bottom ordinates measured in May 2009 and those plotted in Figure 4 are 2 m. The results at long distances from the shoreline, at water depths exceeding 10 m, indicated the presence of homogeneous sandy sediments in the sea bed. More interesting results were found closer to

the shoreline. Excerpts 6-phosphogluconolactonase of the StrataBox seismo-acoustic record of the surveyed profile are shown in Figure 6, Figure 7 and Figure 8. The record at 9 m depth (Figure 6) shows the boundary between two types of sediments. The data from drill core B (cf. Figure 4) suggest that the device has detected a local structure of the sea bed, consisting of a 3 m thick layer of marine sands above glacial sands. The measurements carried out in the vicinity of the gently-sloping outer bar at a distance of about 750 m from the shoreline (Figure 7) reveal the presence of weakly shaped boundaries between sands of various kinds and various origin. The echo reflected from the boundary at the –11.0 m ordinate may imply the existence of a distinct interface between the marine and glacial sands (see the drill core C in Figure 4). The profiling survey carried out in a deep trough between the bars located about 300 m from the shoreline (Figure 8) revealed layers which, on the basis of the data of Figure 4, may correspond to organic-bearing sediments (peat, sandy peat, mud, etc.).

5) for 30 min at 4 °C, followed by PBS wash (three times) Data w

5) for 30 min at 4 °C, followed by PBS wash (three times). Data were acquired using a FACSCalibur (BD Biosciences Pharmingen, San Jose, CA, USA) and analysed employing FlowJo 7.6.4 software (Tree Star Inc., Ashland, OR, USA). Single cell suspensions of peritoneal macrophages in each group (n = 10) were prepared as described above. Macrophages (2 x 105 cells/ml) were incubated with LPS (5 μg/ml) for 24 h. Then the culture supernatant was collected

for determination of cytokine. NO was determined by the Griess method as previously described ( Luna et al., 2012). Nitrite was used to assess NO and absorbance was measured at 550 nm by a microplate reader. The cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α in culture supernatants were determined using ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Abingdon, UK) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The absorbance was measured at 450 nm by a microplate reader. The limit of detection PARP inhibitor for the cytokines shown was IL-1β

(12.5 pg/ml), IL-6 (7.8 pg/ml), IL-18 (15.6 pg/ml), and TNF-α (10.9 pg/ml). In addition, single cell suspensions of splenic cells in each group (n = 10) were prepared as described Etoposide manufacturer above. Splenic cells (2 x 105 cells/ml) were incubated either with ConA (5 μg/ml) for 48 h or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 50 ng/ml; Beyotime, Haimen, Jiangsu, China) and ionomycin (1 μg/ml; Beyotime, Haimen, Jiangsu, China) for 5 h. The culture supernatant was collected after the stimulation of ConA for the assessment of IL-10 and TNF-α, and after the stimulation of PMA and ionomycin Casein kinase 1 for the assessment of IL-4 and IFN-γ. The cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α in culture supernatants were also determined using ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Abingdon, UK) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

The limit of detection for the cytokines shown was IL-4 (7.8 pg/ml), IL-10 (15.6 pg/ml), IFN-γ (9.4 pg/ml), and TNF-α (10.9 pg/ml). All data were analysed with SPSS 12.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical analysis for homogenous variance data was performed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test for multiple comparisons. Results were considered to be statistically significant at p < 0.05 (two-sided). During the entire exposure period in each group of animals, no behavioural or mental disorders were observed, the food and water consumption was normal, and the body hair was soft and smooth—all with no obvious clinical signs and symptoms. After 4 months of exposure, the body, thymus, and spleen weights of the mice in each group exhibited no significant differences (Table 1). The renal-function test results (including BUN and CR levels) for the mice in each group were within the normal range, with no significant difference being observed between the groups (Table 1).

Cluster analysis revealed at least three morphological classes in

Cluster analysis revealed at least three morphological classes in Brepollen: (i) steep slopes (southern Brepollen), (ii) flat sea bottoms (central Brepollen) and gentle slopes (the Store glacier valley and the southern part of the Horn glacier valley), (iii) the most morphologically diverse region (the central Store valley, the northern part of the Horn glacier valley and the NE part of central

Brepollen with the adjacent Horn and Store valleys). We Atezolizumab would like to thank the staff of the Polish Polar Station in Hornsund for their practical assistance during this research. We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers and to the editor for their critical comments on the manuscript. “
“Sedimentation is defined as the overall process of particle transport to, emplacement on, removal from and preservation in the seabed (McKee et al. 1983). This definition discerns certain phases/stages of the sedimentation process. The first stage is deposition defined as temporary emplacement from and preservation on the seabed and pertains to this relatively short time of sediment formation. Sediment accumulation is the stage pertaining to a decidedly longer period: it is the result of particle deposition and removal, leading to the preservation BTK signaling inhibitors of the strata. Particle removal

may be due to several mechanisms, e.g. physical erosion, biological resuspension and chemical dissolution Org 27569 (McKee et al. 1983). The usual method of determining the deposition rate is the in situ technique relevant to this short sedimentation time, where sediment traps are deployed in the natural conditions of seas, bays or lakes (Faas and Carson, 1988, Lund-Hanses et al., 1999 and Roos and Valeur, 2006). The accumulation rate of the sediment comprising a > 100 year period can be determined only by an isotope method based on the analyses of changes in 210Pb activity in the sediment profile (Musielak, 1985, Appleby and Oldfield, 1992 and Appleby, 1997). The rate of accumulation of

marine sediments has been a research topic for many years (Nicholas, 1989, Pempkowiak, 1991, Mojski, 1995, Hille et al., 2006 and Roos and Valeur, 2006). Nevertheless, it remains an important scientific problem because of the still unresolved issues emerging from the variety of methodologies and diverse interpretations of the results. The rate of sediment accumulation has a significant impact on many geochemical processes; it is also vital for the functioning of benthic organisms in this environment, particularly the seabed fauna (Musielak, 1983, Kozerski, 1994, Żytkowicz, 1994 and Szczuciński, 2007). Determining the rate of sediment accumulation is usually a complicated task, even when using theoretical models for a perfectly calm water basin.

Thus, 6 depth layers covering the 2–9 m depth range were normally

Thus, 6 depth layers covering the 2–9 m depth range were normally monitored. In order to obtain information on near-bottom velocities, additional measurements were taken at Matsi between 13 and 17 June 2011 using a short range 3 MHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) (YSI/Sontek). The instrument was deployed approximately 0.5 km shorewards of the RDCP at 8 m depth. With a 20 cm cell size, the profiles with a 4 min time step were started 0.7 m from the bottom. Atezolizumab datasheet At the location between RDCP and ADP deployments,

a Lagrangian surface float (kindly supplied by Dr Tarmo Kõuts of the Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn Technical University) was released simultaneously, which transmitted hourly coordinates. After its release, the float started to recede to the SSE. The data transmitted during the first one-two hours can be used for estimating the surface velocities at Matsi at that time. Although the same RDCP measurements were INK 128 cell line used for the calibration-validation of both wave and current models, quite different approaches were required for their hindcast. For currents and water exchange, we used a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model. The shallow sea depth-averaged

free-surface model with quadratic bottom friction consists of momentum balance and volume conservation equations: equation(1) DUDt−fV=−gH+ξ∂ξ∂x+τxρw−kUH2U2+V21/2, equation(2) DVDt+fU=−gH+ξ∂ξ∂y+τyρw−kVH2U2+V21/2, equation(3) ∂ξ∂t+∂U∂x+∂V∂y=0, equation(4) DDt=∂∂t+1HU∂∂x+V∂∂y, where U   and V   are the vertically integrated volume flows in the x   and y   directions respectively, ξ   is the sea surface elevation

as the deviation from the equilibrium depth (H  ), f   is the Coriolis parameter, ρw   is the water density, k   is the bottom frictional parameter (k   = 0.0025, e.g. Jones & Davies 2001), and τx   and τy   are wind stress τ→ components along the x   and y   axes. Wind stress τ→ was computed using the formula by Smith & Banke (1975): equation(5) τ→=ρaCD|W→10|W→10, which includes a non-dimensional empirical function of the wind velocity: equation(6) CD=0.63+0.066|W→10|10−3, where |W→10| is the wind velocity vector Montelukast Sodium modulus [m s− 1] at 10 m above sea level and ρa is the air density. The model simulates both sea level and current values depending on local wind stress and open boundary sea level forcing. The model domain encompasses the entire areas of the Gulf of Riga and the Väinameri sub-basins with a model grid of horizontal resolution of 1 km, yielding a total of 18 964 marine grid-points (including 2510 in the Väinameri). A staggered Arakawa C grid is used with the positions of the sea levels at the centre of the grid box and the velocities at the interfaces. At the coastal boundaries the normal component of the depth mean current is taken to be zero. In response to variations in sea level, wetting and drying are not included. A minimum depth of 0.

Todos apresentavam doença ativa, grave e refratária à terapêutica

Todos apresentavam doença ativa, grave e refratária à terapêutica convencional (corticoterapia e imunossupressão). A idade média de início do tratamento foi de 15,7 anos. O intervalo médio entre a data de diagnóstico e o início da instituição de terapêutica monoclonal foi de 3,5 anos. Verificou-se que quanto maior foi esse intervalo, maior repercussão existiu na altura (p = 0,032). A duração média de tratamento até à data do estudo foi de 15,7 meses. Verificou-se remissão clínica em 5 doentes. Um doente teve resposta clínica inicial parcial (descida PCDAI de 65 para 37,5) sendo necessário o encurtamento

do esquema para de 6 em 6 semanas. Verificou-se um aumento ponderal médio de 8 kg, assim como uma subida média de 0,58 valores no Seliciclib cost z-score de índice de massa corporal. À data de início do tratamento 5 doentes apresentavam anemia e um padrão inflamatório com pico de α1/α2 na eletroforese de proteínas, com resolução analítica após 6 meses de terapêutica. Em todos Selleckchem Dabrafenib houve normalização da velocidade de sedimentação e da albumina. Verificaram-se 2 reações alérgicas ligeiras e uma elevação transitória das transaminases (2 vezes os valores normais) num dos doentes, que não conduziram

à interrupção da terapêutica. Não se detetaram infeções durante o tratamento. Num dos doentes a terapêutica com infliximab foi suspensa ao fim de 2 anos pela melhoria clínica verificada, below tendo no entanto sofrido uma recaída com necessidade de cirurgia para disseção ileal ao fim de um ano. Noutro doente a terapêutica com infliximab foi substituída por adalimumab por comodidade de administração, com boa resposta clínica. Na tabela 1 estão resumidos os resultados obtidos. O infliximab, sendo a primeira terapia biológica aprovada para o tratamento da doença de Crohn em doentes pediátricos, surge como uma nova opção terapêutica nesta população. Os primeiros relatos sobre a sua segurança

e eficácia demonstraram que as taxas de remissão eram francamente superiores quando comparados com a terapêutica convencional4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. E curiosamente a eficácia era superior nas crianças quando comparadas com os adultos5 and 6. No entanto, ainda depende mais do julgamento clínico do que de uma abordagem baseada na evidência, a decisão de quais os pacientes que mais beneficiam desta terapêutica, se é melhor a sua utilização isolada ou em combinação, e a altura ideal para a sua introdução no decurso da doença9. Embora os benefícios do infliximab estejam melhor estabelecidos para a doença de Crohn, houve uma resposta clínica e laboratorial favorável no nosso doente com colite ulcerosa. Não podemos também esquecer que existe risco associado a esta terapêutica (hipersensibilidade, aumento do risco de infeção e potencial risco de malignização) pelo que os doentes em tratamento devem ter um acompanhamento regular e adequado.

As a result, our study suggested that birth weight may be related

As a result, our study suggested that birth weight may be related to umbilical blood cord lipid levels. The cholesterol levels in umbilical cord blood were lower than those in adults. Since total cholesterol increases after birth, it is possible that the total cholesterol levels of preterm neonates are similar to or lower than those

in full term newborns. However, our results showed the cholesterol levels of the premature group were substantially higher than those of the full term group, which is in agreement with a previous report [8]. Moreover, our study indicated that this difference exists even though the premature neonates were NU7441 price near full term, with a gestational age between 35 and 36.6 weeks. Pardo et al. [29] used atherogenic indices and showed that the AIP did not differ between genders, but preterm newborns had higher levels than full term newborns. In our

study, the TC/HDL ratio was higher in both the LBW and high birth weight groups compared with the normal newborn group, while the LDL/HDL ratio was higher in the LBW group compared with the normal weight newborn group. However, there was no significant difference between the high birth weight and normal weight http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ldk378.html newborn groups. In addition, there were no significant differences between males and females with regard to the TC/HDL and LDL/HDL atherogenic indices. Since the newborns’ lipid indices could be affected by maternal factors, such as BMI [20], infants whose mothers had a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 had higher TC and LDL levels than infants whose mothers had a BMI > 25 kg/m2. Kelishadi et al. demonstrated that mothers with a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 before pregnancy had higher cord blood TG and mothers with a BMI > 18 kg/m2 had lower HDL levels [20]. In our study, the roles of both maternal BMI and age were examined, and it was shown that newborns whose mothers were younger than 30 years old and had PTK6 a BMI > 25 kg/m2 had higher TC and LDL cord blood levels. However, Badiee et al. [21] showed that the cord blood lipid profiles in newborns were not affected by maternal

factors, such as BMI and age. In the study by Nayak et al., they found that maternal BMI had no effect on neonate’s lipid profile [27]. Finally, the sex of newborns does not have any effect on umbilical cord lipids. The TG, TC, LDL, and VLDL levels in LBW and high birth weight newborns were significantly higher than in normal birth weight newborns. TG, TC, LDL, and VLDL levels in LBW and high birth weight newborns were significantly higher than in normal weight newborns. TC and LDL were significantly lower in neonates whose mother’s age ≤ 30 years compared to older mothers. TC and LDL were significantly higher in group whose mother’s BMI ≤ 25 compared to >25. Another prospective study with more sample size is recommended to finding correlation between neonatal birth weight and cord blood lipid profile.

The ITS ROI was defined in terms of a negative correlation

The ITS ROI was defined in terms of a negative correlation

between spelling-sound consistency and BOLD signal in these participants. Evidence has been cited above for a role of the pMTG in phonological processing (Brambati et al., 2009, Indefrey and Levelt, 2004 and Richlan et al., 2009). It is, however, unlikely to be a phonology-specific processing area. In our study, this ROI was defined on the basis of a negative correlation selleck with bigram frequency, which is a property of the orthographic input. In fact, pMTG activation was unrelated to biphone frequency (Graves et al., 2010). Unlike biphone frequency, bigram frequency is necessarily correlated with the frequency with which orthographic combinations are mapped to phonology. The orthography → phonology mapping is less practiced for words

with lower bigram frequency, resulting in less efficient orthography → phonology mapping for such words. The pMTG may therefore play a role in orthography → phonology mapping, perhaps as an intermediate representation linking orthographic and phonological codes, analogous to the “hidden unit” representations in triangle models. These models were implemented with pools of units dedicated to different codes (e.g., orthography, phonology, semantics). Because of their computational complexity, the mappings between codes are hypothesized to occur via interlevel units whose characteristics are determined by both input (e.g., orthography) and output (e.g., phonology) codes. The orthographic, phonological, Bleomycin nmr and semantic components are themselves assumed to develop from an initial state based on learning from perceptual-motor experience, and to be shaped by their participation in multiple computations (see Seidenberg, 2012 for discussion). It should be noted that various areas referred to as pMTG have also been implicated in studies of Histone demethylase semantic processing (e.g., Binder et al., 2005, Binder et al., 2003, Noppeney and

Price, 2004, Pexman et al., 2007, Souza et al., 2009 and Whitney et al., 2011). How can this be reconciled with our interpretation of the pMTG as a component of the orthography → phonology mapping system? One possibility is that a single pMTG site supports both semantic processing and orth–phon mapping. However, the areas referred to as pMTG and linked with semantic processing in these studies may be spatially distinct from the pMTG area that we propose as a part of the orthography → phonology mapping. As suggested by the specificity of the correlations of pathway volume with imageability shown in Fig. 2 (only 2 of the 10 correlations tested were reliable), whether or not such correlations were detected depends a great deal on the morphology and exact location of the ROIs. The pMTG label, however, is both inherently imprecise and not always applied consistently across studies.

Therefore, currently, many structural variants are still missed b

Therefore, currently, many structural variants are still missed by single-cell genome sequencing. Nevertheless, filters have been designed to permit the detection of the structural architecture of copy number alterations following mapping of paired-end sequences CB-839 clinical trial ( Figure 3c) [ 27••] and approaches to detect L1-retrotransposition have been developed [ 45•]. In a recent study, we were able to discover and fine-map intra-chromosomal as well as inter-chromosomal rearrangements in single cells. Furthermore,

we performed single-cell genome sequencing of individual breast cancer cells related by one cell cycle, and detected large de novo structural DNA imbalances acquired over one cell division [ 27••], providing proof of principle that single-cell sequencing can track tumour evolution in real time. Sequencing

allows discovering single nucleotide mutations (Figure 3d). However, genuine base substitutions in the cell have to be discriminated from WGA-polymerase base infidelities and sequencing errors [20•, 26••, 42••, 46••, 47, 48 and 49]. Therefore, reliable single-nucleotide substitution detection in non-haploid loci currently necessitates sequencing of multiple single cells [20•, Angiogenesis inhibitor 26••, 46••, 47 and 48], or confirmation by deep-sequencing of matched bulk tissue [42••], thus posing problems for the characterization of rare cell populations. Targeted sequencing of single-cell WGA products was recently applied to investigate single-nucleotide mutations in the exome, to hunt for heterogeneity in a renal carcinoma [20•], a myeloproliferative neoplasm [46••] and a bladder cancer [47]. Although Histone demethylase variant calls of at least three cells had to be considered to filter WGA and sequencing artefacts from genuine base alterations, subclonal population structure could be profiled at high accuracy,

providing insight into progression and selection processes, and understanding of the difficulty of treating cancer. Single nucleotide and indel mutational landscapes in CTCs in patients with lung cancer [44•• and 50] and colorectal cancer [42•• and 51] were recently also determined by single-cell exome and cancer gene panel re-sequencing, respectively. These studies are signalling the promise of CTC sequencing for identifying therapeutic targets and regimens for personalized treatment. Using short in vitro cultures, mutation rates have been tracked over a limited amount of cell divisions. Whole-genome sequencing of multiple WGAed cells revealed a base mutation rate in a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line that was 10-fold higher when compared to estimates of germline studies [ 26••].