Thus, 6 depth layers covering the 2–9 m depth range were normally monitored. In order to obtain information on near-bottom velocities, additional measurements were taken at Matsi between 13 and 17 June 2011 using a short range 3 MHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) (YSI/Sontek). The instrument was deployed approximately 0.5 km shorewards of the RDCP at 8 m depth. With a 20 cm cell size, the profiles with a 4 min time step were started 0.7 m from the bottom. Atezolizumab datasheet At the location between RDCP and ADP deployments,

a Lagrangian surface float (kindly supplied by Dr Tarmo Kõuts of the Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn Technical University) was released simultaneously, which transmitted hourly coordinates. After its release, the float started to recede to the SSE. The data transmitted during the first one-two hours can be used for estimating the surface velocities at Matsi at that time. Although the same RDCP measurements were INK 128 cell line used for the calibration-validation of both wave and current models, quite different approaches were required for their hindcast. For currents and water exchange, we used a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model. The shallow sea depth-averaged

free-surface model with quadratic bottom friction consists of momentum balance and volume conservation equations: equation(1) DUDt−fV=−gH+ξ∂ξ∂x+τxρw−kUH2U2+V21/2, equation(2) DVDt+fU=−gH+ξ∂ξ∂y+τyρw−kVH2U2+V21/2, equation(3) ∂ξ∂t+∂U∂x+∂V∂y=0, equation(4) DDt=∂∂t+1HU∂∂x+V∂∂y, where U and V are the vertically integrated volume flows in the x and y directions respectively, ξ is the sea surface elevation

as the deviation from the equilibrium depth (H ), f is the Coriolis parameter, ρw is the water density, k is the bottom frictional parameter (k = 0.0025, e.g. Jones & Davies 2001), and τx and τy are wind stress τ→ components along the x and y axes. Wind stress τ→ was computed using the formula by Smith & Banke (1975): equation(5) τ→=ρaCD|W→10|W→10, which includes a non-dimensional empirical function of the wind velocity: equation(6) CD=0.63+0.066|W→10|10−3, where |W→10| is the wind velocity vector Montelukast Sodium modulus [m s− 1] at 10 m above sea level and ρa is the air density. The model simulates both sea level and current values depending on local wind stress and open boundary sea level forcing. The model domain encompasses the entire areas of the Gulf of Riga and the Väinameri sub-basins with a model grid of horizontal resolution of 1 km, yielding a total of 18 964 marine grid-points (including 2510 in the Väinameri). A staggered Arakawa C grid is used with the positions of the sea levels at the centre of the grid box and the velocities at the interfaces. At the coastal boundaries the normal component of the depth mean current is taken to be zero. In response to variations in sea level, wetting and drying are not included. A minimum depth of 0.