Cowles and Bogert (1944) applied a new term to describe chill com

Cowles and Bogert (1944) applied a new term to describe chill coma3 or the loss of coordination. This term was the ‘Critical Thermal minimum’ (CTmin) and will be used here to define the complete loss of coordination (inability to walk or move forward). The upper thermal thresholds of activity are analogous to those of low temperature and include heat coma and the Critical Thermal maximum

(CTmax) (Hazell et al., 2008). The Antarctic Buparlisib in vivo and Arctic are characterised by long, cold winters and brief, cool summers (Ávila-Jiménez et al., 2010 and Block et al., 2009). During the winter, air temperatures regularly fall below −10 °C, and to lower than −40 °C, in regions of the High Arctic and maritime and continental Antarctic (Block et al., 2009, Coulson et al., 1993, Strathdee and Bale, 1998 and Walton, 1984). Buffered microhabitat temperatures in the soil or underneath the snow are likewise sub-zero during winter, though generally these temperatures do not fall much lower than −10 °C (Coulson et al., 1993, Davey ABT-737 purchase et al., 1992, Rinehart et al., 2006 and Strathdee and Bale, 1998). Water is also transformed into ice in winter and is inaccessible to living organisms (Block et al., 2009). Activity is virtually impossible under these conditions. Accordingly, polar

terrestrial invertebrates are dormant during this period and wait until the short, four to six month, summer period to resume activity (Convey, 1996). Summer air temperatures are still very cool, however, rarely rising above 0 °C in the continental Antarctic, 5 °C in the maritime Antarctic, and slightly higher in the Arctic (Davey et al., 1992, Block et al., 2009, Coulson et al., 1993 and Strathdee and Bale, 1998). To benefit from these relatively favourable conditions, these invertebrates are capable

of activity at low and even sub-zero temperatures. Hågvar (2010) has identified several invertebrate groups, including Collembola, Mecoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera and Araneae, which are active at or below 0 °C on the snow of Fennoscandinavia. Block, 1990 and Sinclair et al., 2006 have also shown sub-zero activity in the Antarctic mites Alaskozetes antarcticus and Nanorchestes antarcticus, and the Collembola Isotoma klovstadi, Cryptopygus cisantarcticus and Friesea grisea, respectively. much Activity at high temperatures may also be important in the polar regions. Currently, buffered microhabitat temperatures range up to c. 20 °C in the maritime Antarctic (Convey et al., 2009, Davey et al., 1992 and Everatt et al., 2013), and to slightly higher temperatures in the Arctic (Coulson et al., 1993). Climate warming is also rapidly affecting the polar regions. Over the last 50 years, polar amplification of global climate trends has led to an average 2 °C rise in air temperatures in parts of the Arctic and Antarctic, with even greater increases experienced in regions such as the northern and western Antarctic Peninsula, or when looked at on a seasonal basis (Arctic Council, 2005, Convey et al.

Government and environmental organizations alike have accepted th

Government and environmental organizations alike have accepted the idea of fishing down the food web as

doctrine and are attempting to customize fisheries management policies accordingly [3]. Recent studies, however, have indicated that not all worldwide fisheries may be moving down the food web. Instead, studies have suggested that the witnessed changes in food web dynamics may be due to alternate scenarios of fishing pressure [4] and [5]. The controversy regarding the changing composition of target catch remains active, however it is essential to understand the mechanism driving the witnessed change prior to implementing new management practices. This introduces two critical questions: (1) Are there differences in the ecological effects caused by differing scenarios of fishing pressure evolution? (2) see more Is there a possibility

that constant application of novel management approaches could yield differential results depending on the direction of changes in targeted catch? Trophic level is an indicator of an organism’s Selleckchem Androgen Receptor Antagonist location in the food web. Primary producers (i.e., organisms that create their own food), are assigned a value of one. Each step up the food web represents an increase of one trophic level. Scientists have proposed that the mean trophic level (MTL) of an ecosystem highlights important information about biodiversity and fishery sustainability [6] and [7]. High MTL indicates an abundance of high-level predators, which is inherently indicative of a large amount of prey, suggesting Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase higher biodiversity. Conversely, a lower MTL would indicate a low relative abundance of high-level predators compared to low-level prey, thus suggesting lower biodiversity. In their 1998 study, Pauly et al. used MTL to examine the target catch composition of fisheries worldwide. The authors examined global catch data for 220 species of fish and invertebrates

from 1950 to 1994. They found that “globally, trophic levels of fisheries landings appear to have declined in recent decades at a rate of about 0.1 per decade, without the landings themselves increasing substantially” [1]. This finding initiated global concern regarding trophodynamics, and caused scientists and policy makers alike to closely examine ecosystem structures and standard management policies. According to fisheries scientist and manager Michael King, “the purpose of fisheries management is to ensure that catches from a fish stock are ecologically sustainable in the long term and benefits to fishers and communities are maximized” [8]. The role of fisheries management is one of balance: sustainability of stocks must be congruent with the needs of society. Historically, the necessity for fisheries management has been overlooked; history is replete with accounts of the inexhaustible resource represented by fish.

In the BthA-I, PAR

In the BthA-I, check details two epitopes (Tyr52–Tyr73 and Phe106–Phe119) were recognized specifically by the anti-crotalic horse antivenom and one (Ser17–Tyr25) by both of antivenom (Table 1). Overall, each of the epitopes displayed a relatively strong reactivity (containing 4–14 amino acids extension). However, the strongest intensity was observed with the antigenic determinant Thr70–Glu78, from the basic Asp49-PLA2 (BthTX-II) either with the anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic horse antivenom (Fig. 1A and B, spots B12 and B11, respectively). Fig. 1C shows the list of synthesized peptides. Fig. 1A and B present the immunological assay and the signal intensity of reactivity

for each peptide with anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic horse antivenom, respectively. The oligomeric structure of BthTX-I, BthTX-II and BthA-I proteins were solved by X-ray crystallography and are available in the protein data bank ( under the PDB accession numbers: 3I3I (Fernandes et al., 2010), 2OQD (Correa et al., 2008) and 1U73 (Magro et al., 2004), respectively. Fig. 2 displays the spatial localization of the epitopes identified by the SPOT-synthesis array experiments. Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor Two of the BthTX-II epitopes (Thy70–Glu78 and Gly80–Thr89) were localized in a β-wing region, while all

of other linear epitopes were located in coil/loop structures in the PLA2s protein structures. The hydropathy plots of the three proteins, shown in the Fig. 3, also suggested that all of the epitopes were present on the surface of the proteins. The sequences of fifty PLA2s were selected and grouped into three sub-groups: a. Lys49-PLA2 (fourteen from the Bothrops genus and one from the 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase Crotalus genus); b. basic Asp49-PLA2 (seven from the Bothrops genus and ten from the Crotalus genus); c. acidic Asp49-PLA2 (eight from the Bothrops genus, eight from the Crotalus genus

and two from the Lachesis genus) ( Fig. 4). Individual identifiers, accession numbers and theoretical isoelectric points (pI) of the PLA2s sequences are presented in Table 2. Shared amino acids sequence from the 12 epitopes recognized by the reaction between the B. jararacussu PLA2s and anti-crotalic/anti-bothropic horse antivenom were analyzed by a multiple sequence alignment between the fifty PLA2s selected sequences. Two antigenic determinants present in the Lys49-PLA2s, which reacted positive only for the anti-bothropic horse antivenom, were identified as Cys84–Asn89 and Lys116–Asp130. The 84CGENN89 epitope of BthTX-I was identified in the three-dimensional structure within a β-wing region (Fernandes et al., 2010), which was considered to have an acidic characteristic (theoretical pI = 4.0).

The image distortions (“shadows”) produced by the posterior (dors

The image distortions (“shadows”) produced by the posterior (dorsal) catheters can obscure the view of more anterior (ventral) catheters during treatment planning, and the catheters themselves can obscure the prostate contour especially near the apex. Schmid et al. (29) compared needle reconstruction accuracy with ultrasound to CT using a phantom. The two main problems were spurious echoes on TRUS and difficulty with craniocaudal

needle tip identification (up to 6 mm). In addition, definition of contours of the rectum and to a lesser extent the bladder may be less accurately rendered with real time TRUS planning than with CT-based planning. Newer 3D ultrasound probes will likely reduce some of these technical difficulties ( Fig. 2). Monitoring and adjustment of catheters is not unique to CT dosimetry or TRUS, but rather p38 MAPK apoptosis it is a key element of multifraction HDR brachytherapy. Most of the catheter displacement studies are based on the CT dosimetry process, which involves moving the patient between simulation and treatment delivery. Kovalchuk et al. (30) at the Mayo Clinic did a

dosimetry study of catheter displacement by comparing initial dosimetry with doses that would be delivered with displaced catheters. They noted a mean needle displacement of 3.5 mm between fractions. The D90 ≥ 95% was 100% vs. 82% (initial vs. displaced), V100 ≥ 95% was 87% vs. 53%, and urethra V115 ≤ 10% was 78% vs. 69%. Replanning improved the dosimetry. Huang et al. (31) at Henry Ford Hospital performed CT scans before every HDR fraction Panobinostat in vivo in 13 patients and made catheter adjustments when there was >3 mm catheter displacement. Adjustments were made on 30% catheters by an average of 5.8 mm. Without adjustments, the D90 would have been 10–32% less than the originally planned and after making adjustments, the D90 was within 10% of the original plan. Holly et al. (32) from Ontario Canada performed cone-beam CT to assess catheter displacement between planning

and the first treatment in 20 consecutive patients and evaluated the ability to improve dosimetry dipyridamole by catheter readjustment. A mean catheter displacement of 11 mm was noted, and it would have resulted in a decrease in mean V100 from 98% to 77% (p < 0.001), mean D90 from 111% to 73% (p < 0.001), and an increase in urethra D10 from 118% to 125% (p = 0.0094) had it not been corrected. Catheter readjustments were helpful (V100 90%, D90 97%, and urethra D10 126%) but did not completely restore the original dosimetry. These and other studies demonstrate that catheter displacement can be a source of discrepancy between the calculated and delivered dose [33], [34] and [35]. The clinical significance of small (e.g., <3 mm) changes in catheter position has not been demonstrated. There are two TRUS treatment planning interfraction motion studies. Seppenwoolde et al.

However, none of the four patients had any premonitory soft tissu

However, none of the four patients had any premonitory soft tissue masses or swelling. One of these four cases was a patient who is

a phenotypic and genotypic variant of FOP (patient 7). The other three had classic FOP. In 31% of patients (22/72 cases), the initial onset of FOP occurred following trauma. In 18 of the 22 cases, the onset occurred following blunt trauma during routine childhood play; in 4 of the 22 cases, the onset occurred APO866 mouse after surgical biopsy of an unsuspected FOP lesion. Most of the parents could not recall the definitive time interval between the blunt trauma and the resulting flare-up. Only in six patients was the interval clearly remembered by their parents to be one week (three cases), ten days (one case), two weeks (one case), and three weeks (one case). The trauma experienced by these 22 patients included blunt trauma

to the occipital region, back of neck, shoulder or elbow, and surgical procedures for torticollis, congenital hip dysplasia, osteochondroma of the proximal medial tibia, and fracture of the femoral shaft. In all the 22 patients, spontaneous flare-up would occur subsequent to the trauma-induced onset. The spatial progression of FOP lesions was similar to that previously reported [3]. There was no predictable interval between flare-ups for those affected with spontaneous Inhibitor Library order onset or for those who had spontaneous flare-ups following an initial post-traumatic flare-up. Eighty-four percent of patients (61/72 cases) were misdiagnosed or had not been given any diagnosis in local hospitals prior to their visit to our clinic or our visit to their home. Thirty-six percent of patients (26/72 cases) had undergone a diagnostic biopsy of an FOP lesion prior to the definitive diagnosis of FOP. One hundred percent of those patients (26/26) developed heterotopic ossification at the operative site as a result of the biopsy. The pathological findings were dramatically

different from patient to patient and reflected both Pyruvate dehydrogenase the stage of the lesion at the time of the biopsy and the ignorance of the medical team regarding the true cause of the pathology. Pathologic misdiagnoses occurred in 92% of patients (24/26 cases) and included panniculitis, eosinophilic fasciitis, fibromyoma, nodular fasciitis, benign fibroma, aggressive fibroma, rhabdomyosarcoma, chondroma, osseous fasciitis, and osteochondroma. 8% of patients (2/26 cases) were correctly diagnosed with FOP on the basis of the pathologic findings and the associated toe malformations. Unfortunately, FOP could have been diagnosed in all cases on the basis of malformed toes and soft tissue swelling and/or heterotopic ossification before an unnecessary and invasive biopsy had been performed [4].

CO2, a major determinant of cerebrovascular tone [31], [33] and [

CO2, a major determinant of cerebrovascular tone [31], [33] and [34], was not evaluated, and could have influenced our results. However, we can speculate that relative hypocapnia in orthostasis [34], namely during HUT, and an assumed inverse relationship between CO2

and CrCP [22], would cause absolute CrCP to increase from supine to HUT conditions and also would prevent a substantial decrease with cortical activation in HUT. Also, it is PKC inhibitor known that induced hypocapnia impairs NVC with a similar experimental protocol [29]. Given that these changes were not observed in our study, it is more likely that PaCO2 remained relatively constant during the orthostatic challenges. The importance of CO2 changes during mental activation was studied previously in a MCA-based protocol which analysed also CrCP–RAP variations [30] and found significant

changes Roxadustat mw of CO2 interacting with cerebral and systemic hemodynamic parameters. Nevertheless, the study by Moody et al. [35] adopted cognitive paradigms that can be much more stressful than plain reading and hence might have caused significantly greater hyperventilation. Taken together, we conclude that NVC has different pressure-autoregulatory adaptation mechanisms with orthostatic challenge, in spite of preserved cerebral evoked flow responses. Analysis of the NVC response to reading based solely on the inspection of the BFV amplitude response gives the false impression of a lack of effect of orthostatic challenges. In reality, by looking separately at changes in RAP and CrCP, Protein tyrosine phosphatase it is possible to appreciate the complex interplay of these responses at different levels of orthostatic challenge. Further work is needed to assess the response of these mechanisms

in different cerebrovascular conditions and their potential diagnostic and prognostic value. “
“There is some evidence that migraine patients might have endothelial dysfunction [1]. In this context, it is proposed that migraine could lead to endothelial dysfunction or endothelial dysfunction could lead to migraine [1]. Nevertheless, endothelial dysfunction could be important in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases in migraine patients. Namely, several studies have shown that migraine is associated with disorders of the cerebrovascular, coronary, retinal and peripheral vasculatures [1]. However, it must be emphasized that in many studies the authors did not exclude vascular risk factors, or perhaps, besides excluding many vascular risk factors, they did not evaluate carotid intima–media thickness (IMT), a morphological marker of the early atherosclerotic process [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] and [7]. Therefore, all the already mentioned vascular disorders in migraine patients might be a consequence of vascular risk factors, or of an unrecognized atherosclerotic process.

Data from one of the largest studies performed on over 122,000 me

Data from one of the largest studies performed on over 122,000 men comparing RT to prostatectomy found that the radiation-associated second malignancy rates were 1 in 290 (8). Remember, this 0.3% absolute risk is radiotherapy (RT) compared with no RT. Dr Stone cited data demonstrating a relative 18% increased risk in second cancers from implant to combination therapy (4.7% to 5.7%); however, this buy Talazoparib would correlate to an absolute increased risk of only 0.05% when adding supplemental EBRT over implant alone! Lastly, Dr Stone is correct

that the upfront costs of supplemental EBRT are more expensive than implant alone. However, the Markov model he cited reported by Cooperberg et al. was driven by the find more immense increased toxicity with combination therapy and assumed a fourfold higher risk of acute GI toxicity and nearly twofold increase in GI late toxicity with the additional of supplemental EBRT (9). Based on prospective data from the RTOG and CALGB for combination therapy cited previously, these estimates are exaggerated [5] and [10]. Assuming

a minimal increase in toxicity, and a conservative estimate of approximately 10% improvement in biochemical control with the addition of supplemental EBRT (Cooperberg estimated 12%), the costs of salvage therapy will dominate the overall costs of therapy. The estimated annual cost of a biochemical recurrence treated with ADT is $2566, one-time cost of salvage RT is $27,586, and salvage prostatectomy is $8547. With success rates of salvage therapy often less than

50%, coupled with the costs of increased chronic toxicity from salvage therapies, the benefit of supplemental EBRT likely outweighs any initial upfront cost saving of implant alone for patients with intermediate-risk disease. In summary, dose escalation has a proven benefit for intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Further dose escalation appears to further enhance biochemical and local control, and Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase this can readily be achieved with supplemental EBRT while providing the needed extraprostatic coverage for this cohort of patients. Supplemental EBRT is safe with very low rates of severe late toxicity, clinically minute increased risk of secondary radiation included malignancies, and likely comparable costs to implant alone. We agree that low volume intermediate-risk disease can be adequately treated with implant alone, yet for many patients with moderate or large volume disease, we believe that the addition of supplemental EBRT is paramount in achieving durable long-term tumor control and the most efficacious radiotherapeutic treatment intervention for these patients.

Previous studies estimated the annual number of hip fractures to

Previous studies estimated the annual number of hip fractures to reach up to Z-VAD-FMK chemical structure 2.6 million to 4.6 million by 2025 and 4.5 million to 6.26 million by 2050 worldwide, with Asia and Latin America exhibiting the greatest increase [21] and [22]. The Taiwanese population increased from 15,927,167 in 1964 to 23,224,912 in 2011, and the proportion of the elderly population aged 65 years or older increased from 3% in 1964 to 10.7% in 2011 [23]. As the elderly population increases rapidly in Taiwan, hip fractures will become an important public health issue. Several studies recently confirmed the association between hip fracture

and mortality [4], [8], [9], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28] and [29], with some exploring Ixazomib this association using nationwide, long-term, follow-up population data from Asia [9], [25], [27] and [28]. However, no population study reported on the excess mortality of hip fractures in Taiwan. Therefore, this study aims to assess the incidence and excess mortality among hip fracture patients through inpatients aged 60 years or older from a nationwide population database in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance (NHI) database covers the period between 1997 to the present, with data provided annually by the Department of Health of Taiwan. The database covers all patients’ medical benefit claims for more than 23 million

Taiwanese residents in 2011, with a coverage rate exceeding 99% of the whole population. The completeness and accuracy of the NHI database is guaranteed by the Department of Health and the NHI Bureau of Taiwan. This study selected subjects aged 60 years or older, who were admitted to hospitals between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2009. Subjects were identified from the database based on the following criteria: (i) a first discharge diagnosis code of hip fracture (based on International Classification of Disease,

Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 820, 820.0, 820.00, 820.01, 820.02, 820.09, 820.8, 820.03, 820.2, 820.20, and 820.21) and (ii) medical code with surgery of internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty (based on ICD-9-CM codes 79.15, 79.35, 81.52). The first admission date of hip fracture was defined as the index date. Reverse transcriptase The exclusion criteria were inpatients with pathological fractures (ICD-9-CM codes 733.14 and 733.15), open hip fractures (ICD-9-CM codes 820.1, 820.10, 820.11, 820.12, 820.19, 820.9, 820.13, 820.22, 820.3, 820.30, 820.31, and 820.32), or involved in a major traffic accident. Patients who had operations on the pelvis, femur, and hip regions before the index date were excluded to avoid confounding effects. In total, 143,595 subjects with hip fracture were enrolled in the study and followed up until exiting the NHI program, death, or the end of 2010.

The movement of these two coastal forms can be divergent/converge

The movement of these two coastal forms can be divergent/convergent (25–35% of all cases analysed) or consistent in the onshore/offshore direction (25–40%). These observations have shown that the dynamics of the shoreline is significantly greater than that of the dune toe. The velocity of shoreline

displacement, averaged over the time between two consecutive shoreline measurements at Lubiatowo, attains respective values of about 0.4 and 0.7 m day−1 for accumulation and erosion. A more intensive shoreline retreat, well in excess of 1 m day−1, may result in the short term from high daily wave energy values. The analysis has revealed a quantity of about 50 kJ m−1, dividing shore evolution into accumulation and erosion. This value can be treated as a rough boundary for all seasons except winter, when a nearshore ice cover PD0325901 datasheet Selleckchem Epacadostat and an ice berm often form along the shoreline. The latter is a seasonal,

natural seawall protecting the beach and dune from wave impact. The shoreline in winter may therefore remain stable despite the storm events occurring in this season. Time scales are crucial in any assessment of changes to the shoreline and dune toe, as well as in analyses of the correlations between these evolutionary processes. In general, the spread of these correlations for various cross-shore profiles is smaller for long-term (25 year) observations. The stability criterion assumed for a shoreline-dune system such as the one discussed here is a beach width of 40–50 m. Of course,

DOK2 during short-lived extreme events, these values may fluctuate very considerably, sometimes by as much as 50–60%. For a typical dissipative shore such as this section of the southern Baltic coast, the destruction of dune systems implies threats to the hinterland. The climatic changes observed in recent decades, namely, global warming, can reduce the intensity and duration of winter ice phenomena, making the Baltic shores less resilient to storm attacks. The lack of a seasonal nearshore ice cover and ice berm at the shoreline, together with increased storminess, will certainly increase the vulnerability of the coast to erosion. “
“Dinoflagellates constitute the major phytoplankton group in marine environments with harmful species, causing red tides and shellfish poisonings in coastal areas (de Vernal & Marret 2007). The life cycle of many dinoflagellates consists of an asexual vegetative phase, with production by binary fission, and a sexual phase, involving reproduction by gamete fusion (Pfiester & Anderson 1987). Sexual reproduction yields a motile cell, the zygote, which can either return to the vegetative stage or become a hypnozygote, or resting cyst, which is unable to swim and sinks to the bottom sediments (Figueroa et al. 2007). Cysts can remain viable in sediments for 5–10 years or longer (Anderson et al. 1995).

By canonical discriminant analysis, the content of protein (Wilk’

By canonical discriminant analysis, the content of protein (Wilk’s Lambda = 0.883, F = 7.946, P = 0.007), starch (Wilk’s

Lambda = 0.757, F = 19.281, P = 0.000), oil (Wilk’s Lambda = 0.980, F = 1.193, P = 0.279) and total polyphenol (Wilk’s Lambda = 0.827, F = 12.583, P = 0.001) explained that protein, starch and total polyphenol concentration are important traits in the discrimination of the two subgroups. The cluster yielded 90.3% agreement in identifications. However two varieties in subgroup1 were placed RG7204 nmr in Subgroup 2; and three varieties in Subgroup 2 were placed in Subgroup 1. If a specific variable exceeds the critical value in the Student’s t test (dashed vertical line, P = 0.05) then that variance contributed to the formation of a specific grouping ( Fig. 5). For Group 1, AZD1208 in vivo the concentration of starch and total polyphenol contributes more significantly than oil. Only protein had major significant contribution for Group 2. The four constituents all contributed to the formation of Group 3 ( Table 5). There were 81 samples sown in spring and 114 in winter. The protein content in spring sown crops (27.40 ± 1.41%) and in winter sown (27.34 ± 1.37%) were not significantly different (F = 2.046, P = 0.771). The starch content (43.19 ± 1.57%)

and total polyphenol (4.25 ± 1.16 mg g− 1) in spring sown crops was significantly higher (F = 0.020, P = 0.000; F = 14.109, P = 0.000) than that in winter sown (40.91 ± 1.54%, 3.62 ± 0.94 mg g− 1). The content of oil in winter sown crops (1.28 ± 0.32%) was significantly higher (F = 0.625, P = 0.00) than that in spring sown (1.10 ± 0.29%). These results demonstrated the basic accordance of the constituent features of the three Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase groups with sowing date, i.e., Group 1 for winter sown, Group 2 for both winter and spring sown, and Group 3 for spring sown. Table 6 shows the correlations between geographical coordinates of producing areas and the principal constituents. The coefficients of correlation varied from − 0.414 to 0.587 (P < 0.01), and indicated that there was a relationship between some of the constituents and some

of the geographical coordinates of the production areas. Elevation was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with all of the four constituents and coefficients of correlation were negative for protein and oil, but positive for starch and total polyphenol content. Latitude was positively correlated (P < 0.01) with the protein and starch content. Longitude showed low correlation only with the oil content. The results also suggested a certain consistency of the characteristics of contents changes with geographic coordinates in the three groups (e.g. Group 1 with low elevation, Group 2 with median elevation, and Group 3 with high elevation). Results of chemical analysis of components of faba bean were similar to those of previous publications (protein ranging 22.9% to 38.