Cowles and Bogert (1944) applied a new term to describe chill coma3 or the loss of coordination. This term was the ‘Critical Thermal minimum’ (CTmin) and will be used here to define the complete loss of coordination (inability to walk or move forward). The upper thermal thresholds of activity are analogous to those of low temperature and include heat coma and the Critical Thermal maximum
(CTmax) (Hazell et al., 2008). The Antarctic Buparlisib in vivo and Arctic are characterised by long, cold winters and brief, cool summers (Ávila-Jiménez et al., 2010 and Block et al., 2009). During the winter, air temperatures regularly fall below −10 °C, and to lower than −40 °C, in regions of the High Arctic and maritime and continental Antarctic (Block et al., 2009, Coulson et al., 1993, Strathdee and Bale, 1998 and Walton, 1984). Buffered microhabitat temperatures in the soil or underneath the snow are likewise sub-zero during winter, though generally these temperatures do not fall much lower than −10 °C (Coulson et al., 1993, Davey ABT-737 purchase et al., 1992, Rinehart et al., 2006 and Strathdee and Bale, 1998). Water is also transformed into ice in winter and is inaccessible to living organisms (Block et al., 2009). Activity is virtually impossible under these conditions. Accordingly, polar
terrestrial invertebrates are dormant during this period and wait until the short, four to six month, summer period to resume activity (Convey, 1996). Summer air temperatures are still very cool, however, rarely rising above 0 °C in the continental Antarctic, 5 °C in the maritime Antarctic, and slightly higher in the Arctic (Davey et al., 1992, Block et al., 2009, Coulson et al., 1993 and Strathdee and Bale, 1998). To benefit from these relatively favourable conditions, these invertebrates are capable
of activity at low and even sub-zero temperatures. Hågvar (2010) has identified several invertebrate groups, including Collembola, Mecoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera and Araneae, which are active at or below 0 °C on the snow of Fennoscandinavia. Block, 1990 and Sinclair et al., 2006 have also shown sub-zero activity in the Antarctic mites Alaskozetes antarcticus and Nanorchestes antarcticus, and the Collembola Isotoma klovstadi, Cryptopygus cisantarcticus and Friesea grisea, respectively. much Activity at high temperatures may also be important in the polar regions. Currently, buffered microhabitat temperatures range up to c. 20 °C in the maritime Antarctic (Convey et al., 2009, Davey et al., 1992 and Everatt et al., 2013), and to slightly higher temperatures in the Arctic (Coulson et al., 1993). Climate warming is also rapidly affecting the polar regions. Over the last 50 years, polar amplification of global climate trends has led to an average 2 °C rise in air temperatures in parts of the Arctic and Antarctic, with even greater increases experienced in regions such as the northern and western Antarctic Peninsula, or when looked at on a seasonal basis (Arctic Council, 2005, Convey et al.