IVI is an International organization working in 35 countries with headquarters in
Korea, funded by the Korean Government, Gates Foundation, Swedish government and also from Korean corporations that finance some of the projects in Ethiopia and Malawi. IVI works from “Bench to Field” on research, process development, assay development, and also on Translational research, focusing on interaction of vaccines. IVI is focused on enteric diseases, technology transfer and related training. Notably, IVI worked in cross collaboration with VABIOTEC and Shanta Biotech for the cholera vaccine Shanchol prequalification in 2011. The vaccine was initially discovered at Vabiotech, licensed and then adjusted to WHO requirements for the prequalification. BI 6727 concentration Cholera burden A-1210477 clinical trial is likely to exceed 1 million cases annually with 120,000 deaths annually. To increase capacity and access IVI collaborates for technology transfer to Eubiologics in Korea. A clinical trial was conducted on 65,000 subjects and the vaccine provided about 65% protection for at least 3 years and shown to be safe among children aged 1–4.9 years. Larger clinical trials for licensure and WHO prequalification are planned. This vaccine is primarily
aimed for a stock pile in preparing for an eventual epidemic. A second project is to make available a high quality, safe and efficacious vaccine for Typhoid fever for the population at most risk from the infection. As Vi- polysaccharide shows low efficacy levels IVI aims to develop a conjugated vaccine for typhoid, by optimizing Vi fermentation, developing novel purification process, and improving the quality of the conjugated vaccine. The selected carrier protein was Diphtheria Toxoid. The technology is being transferred to Shanta and SK Chemicals (Korea), as well to Biofarma (Indonesia). IVI has moved from 5 to 10 L fermentation batches and at the moment clinical lots
are ready for Phase II and III studies in India. Calpain Conditions for technology transfer include that manufacturers operate in compliance with WHO cGMP, willing to achieve WHO-prequalification, capacity to scale up, and commitment to supply public markets. Challenges IVI faces are the changing priorities of manufacturers (due to mergers and acquisitions) delaying product development. K. Ella reviewed challenges of adjuvanted vaccines that today include two approaches: delivery systems and immunomodulattors. For instance European countries have approved innumerous adjuvanted vaccines so far, while the US FDA has approved only two. Bharat Biotech has partnerships for developing adjuvanted systems, including 23 innovative analogues so far tested in vitro for safety and toxicity. It is considering setting up a common platform to access intellectual property of adjuvants for use in products for public health benefit.