Lack of availability

and access to effective intervention

Lack of availability

and access to effective interventions hinders STI control in much of the world. Without an effective primary prevention tool such as a vaccine, or a feasible point-of-care diagnostic test with on-site curative treatment and a platform to access large numbers of infected persons, implementation of STI prevention remains challenging. This is especially true in resource-poor settings, where both health infrastructure and care-seeking may be sub-optimal. For example, prior to HPV vaccine, the use of Pap test screening with treatment of cervical cancer precursors dramatically reduced cervical cancer cases and deaths in high-income countries. However, in lower-income countries, without the infrastructure needed

for Pap screening, HPV-related cervical cancer remains a major public health problem [35]. For STI case management, availability and access to feasible, affordable diagnostic tests is crucial. AZD2281 concentration New accurate point-of-care diagnostic tests for syphilis are now available and are cheap, easy to use, and check details make syphilis screening of antenatal and high-risk populations possible even in remote settings [87]. Rapid diagnostic tests for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis may also be on the horizon [87]. However, availability of accurate tests and other interventions alone does not ensure effective implementation and control [61], [88] and [89]. In addition to needing a platform

to access infected persons, it takes commitment, resources, and mechanisms for scale-up, to ensure broad intervention coverage and uptake, steady procurement of supplies, and ongoing sustainability of implementation efforts [61]. Vaccines have the potential to overcome many behavioral, biological, and implementation barriers to reducing global STI burden. Here we outline the case for the major new targets for STI vaccine development. The large numbers of HSV-2 infections globally [14] are extremely important because of the marked synergy between HSV-2 and HIV infections. In some areas, HSV-2 infection may account for up to 30–50% of new HIV infections [46] and [90]. Antiviral medications Sitaxentan treat HSV-2 symptoms and decrease HSV and HIV genital shedding; however, current regimens do not prevent HIV acquisition or transmission [47] and [91]. Thus, primary prevention of HSV-2 infection is currently the only way to reduce the excess risk of HIV infection related to HSV-2. Available primary prevention strategies for HSV-2, such as condom use, use of daily suppressive therapy by symptomatic partners, and medical male circumcision may be useful for individuals. However, efficacy of these interventions ranges from only 30–50% [16], [92] and [93], and interventions like widespread serologic testing and suppressive antiviral therapy are costly and unlikely to be feasible on a large scale.

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