These were the same body parts selleck chemical that showed a higher prevalence of lesions in our study, suggesting that unassisted stretching exercises before surfing do not prevent injuries. On the other hand, warming up performed before physical exercise can increase the speed and force of muscle contraction, due to the increase in metabolic reactions, oxygen supply to the muscles by hemoglobin and acceleration of the speed of nerve conduction. Such metabolic reactions contribute to the reduction of the reaction time and viscosity of the muscle, which decreases the likelihood of lesions. 21 , 22 When analyzing the importance of warming up and stretching in the sport, emphasis has been done to the importance of warming up before performing a sport activity and stretching after practice.
23 In the present study, it was found that stretching was more performed than warming up before surfing and most of the investigated surfers did not do any kind of exercise after sport, raising the hypothesis that such behavior increases the chance of occurrence of injuries among surfers in the seacoast of Paran��, requiring continuing education as a way to prevent injuries. Thirty-five percent of the surfers participating in this study did not interrupt their sport activities for health treatments. Other authors have studied surfers of UK, in which most of the injuries are of low complexity, that is, do not require hospital admission for treatment. 24 These authors also recommend the importance of preventing injuries by use and adapting individual protective equipment.
6 , 24 Moreover, most surfers of the present study reported the need to interrupt sport for 1 to 3 months. The most common treatments reported were medication, stretching and resistance exercises. Other authors have also indicated drug therapies for the treatment of wound infections and tympanic lesions. 25 The present study has some limitations with respect to the adapted questionnaire, in which the terms contusion and muscular lesion were used as different types of injuries. Contusion, depending on its intensity, can cause muscle injury. In addition, the terms warming up and stretching were also used, whereas, depending on the type and duration of stretching exercises, it can be considered warm up exercise.
However, before completing the questionnaire it was explained to the participants that stretching refers to static stretching exercise lasting for at least 10 seconds and that warming Entinostat should be considered a walk, run or bike ride lasting for at least 10 minutes. Therefore, it is suggested for future studies adaptation of the terms, as well as construct validity for the use of questionnaires that aim to assess the prevalence of injuries arising from surfing. Another suggestion for investigation studies on the causes of injuries in surfers would be to conduct monitoring of surfers through a prospective longitudinal study, with questionnaires applied at short intervals.