When performing the SSRO, the exact location of the lingula is crucial, since the osteotomy is performed at the region around the lingula of the mandible during the medial horizontal osteotomy.11 We also morphometrically determined the position of the lingula. MATERIALS AND METHODS The maxillary Regorafenib molecular weight arteries were dissected bilaterally using a lateral infratemporal approach in 17 formalin-fixed adult cadavers (14 males and 3 females, total 34 sides) under a dissection microscope (Stemi 2000, Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). The mean age of the cadavers was 54 (range 23�C76 years). The covering soft tissues, superficial lobe of the parotid gland, and masseter muscle were removed to unearth the mandibular condyle. The lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible was exposed along with the external carotid artery and the origin of the maxillary artery.
Following the removal of the zygomatic arches using an oscillating saw, a mandibular osteotomy was performed, while making sure that the TMJ and the attachment of the lateral pterygoid muscle to the pterygoid fovea were preserved. The most inferior point of the articular eminence, the medial cortex of the mandibular ramus, the inferior border of pterygoid fovea, and the mandibular notch were the bony landmarks selected to be studied with the maxillary artery. The topographical relationships between the MAs and these landmarks were evaluated. The distances between the defined landmarks and the maxillary arteries were measured using a digital caliper. In order to determine the exact localization, the condylar level of the MAs was investigated.
An imaginary line passing transversely from the inferior border of the pterygoid fovea at the middle of the neck of the mandible was decided as midcervical level. The regions above and below the line were defined as supracervical and infracervical, respectively (Figure 1). Figure 1. Green lines indicate the measured vertical distances between the MA and selected landmarks. Maxillary artery (MA); Articular eminence (AE); Mandibular notch (MN); Midcervical (M); Supracervical (S); Infracervical (I). The location of the mandibular lingula was determined by measuring the distance between the tip of the lingula and the sigmoid notch, the inferior border of the ramus, the anterior margin of the ramus, and the posterior margin of the ramus.
All data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, with P<.05 accepted as significant. Data are presented as mean values �� SD. RESULTS The MAs coursed horizontally medial to the ramus of the mandible immediately after emerging from the external Brefeldin_A carotid artery and then ran superficial to the inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle in all specimens. The average vertical distances between the MA and the most inferior point of the articular eminence, the medial cortex of the mandibular ramus, the inferior border of the pterygoid fovea, and the mandibular notch were determined as 1.67��0.48 mm, 5.38��2.