However, late decrease in FDG uptake after completion of neoadjuv

However, late decrease in FDG uptake after completion of neoadjuvant therapy was predictive for pathological response and survival in only 2 of 6 Cyclopamine studies.\n\nConclusions. Measuring decrease in FDG uptake early during neoadjuvant therapy is most appealing, moreover because the observed range of values expressed as relative decrease to discriminate responding from nonresponding patients is very small. At present inter-institutional

comparison of results is difficult because several different normalization factors for FDG uptake are in use. Therefore, more research focusing on standardization of protocols and inter-institutional differences should be performed, before a PET-guided algorithm can be universally advocated.”
“Pathological laughter and crying (PLC) has been widely documented in the medical literature in association with various pathological

processes in the brainstem, particularly infarction. However, it remains poorly understood. The authors present a case report and analyze all the cases in the literature to try to localize a putative faciorespiratory GSK2879552 center. This 13-year-old girl developed a pontine abscess subsequent to sphenoid sinusitis. This increased in size despite antibiotic treatment, and she developed PLC. The abscess was then stereotactically aspirated, with resolution of the symptoms.\n\nA PubMed search of the term “pathological laughter and crying” was performed. From these papers all reported cases of PLC were identified. Cases without neuroimaging Prexasertib purchase were excluded. The remaining cases were categorized as small lesions permitting accurate localization within the pons, or large nonlocalizing lesions. All images of localizing lesions were magnified to the same size and placed on a grid. From this an area of maximal overlap was identified. The authors identified 7 cases of small localizing lesions with adequate imaging. The area of maximal overlap was in the region of the anterior paramedian pons. All the lesions involved this region of the pons. There were 28 further reports of large lesions that either resulted in gross compressive

distortion of the pons or diffusely infiltrated it, and thus, although implicating involvement of a pontine center, did not allow for localization of a specific region of the pons.\n\nThe authors report a case of PLC caused by a pontine abscess. Symptoms were reversible with stereotactically assisted aspiration and antibiotic administration. Analysis of the lesions reported in the literature showed a pattern toward a regulatory center in the pons. The most consistently involved region was in the anterior paramedian pons, and this may be the site of a faciorespiratory center. (DOI: 10.3171/2011.8.PEDS11265)”
“Advanced cancer patients are managed by palliative care and its main aim is to provide best possible quality of life to the patients by symptom management.

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