Among three free lipases such as lipase G (Penicillium cyclopium), lipase
AK (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia), lipase PS exhibited the highest DAG productivity, and the DAG content gradually increased up to 24 hours reaction and then remained steady. The comparative result for DAG productivity between free lipase PS and immobilized lipases (lipase PS-D and Lipozyme RM IM) during nine times of 24 hours reaction indicated that total DAG Ilomastat clinical trial production was higher in immobilized lipase PS-D (183.5 mM) and Lipozyme RM IM (309.5 mM) than free lipase PS (122.0 mM) at the first reaction, and that the DAG production rate was reduced by consecutive reactions, in which more sn-1,3-DAG was synthesized than sn-1,2-DAG. During the consecutive
reactions, PF-4708671 in vitro the activity of lipase PS was relatively steady by showing similar DAG content, whereas DAG production of lipase PS-D and Lipozyme RM IM was gradually decreased to 69.9 and 167.1 mM at 9th reaction, respectively, resulting in 62% and 46% reduced production when compared with 1st reaction. Interestingly, from 7th reaction lipase PS produced more DAG than immobilized lipase PS-D, and exhibited a stable activity for DAG production. Therefore, the present study suggested that DAG productivity between GMO and ethyl oleate was higher in immobilized lipases than free lipases, but the activity was reduced with repeated uses.”
“BSN1, a nattokinase, was purified from the culture supernatant of Bacillus subtilis TKU007 with shrimp shell wastes as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The BSN1 was purified to homogeneity by three-step procedure with a 515-fold increase in specific activity and 12% recovery. The molecular masses of BSN1 determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtrations were approximately 30 kDa and 28 kDa, respectively. The results of peptide mass mapping showed that four tryptic peptides of BSN1 were identical to the nattokinase
from B. subtilis (GenBank accession number gi14422313) with 37% sequence coverage. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the first 12 amino acids of BSN1 was AQSVPYGISQIK. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, and first thermal stability of BSN1 were 8, 40 degrees C, pH 4-11, and less than 50 degrees C, respectively. BSN1 was inhibited completely by PMSF, indicating that the BSN1 was a serine protease. Using this method, B. subtilis TKU007 produces a nattokinase/fibrinolytic enzyme and this enzyme may be considered as a new source for thrombolytic agents.”
“Background Chronic heart failure is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Raised resting heart rate is a risk factor for adverse outcomes. We aimed to assess the effect of heart-rate reduction by the selective sinus-node inhibitor ivabradine on outcomes in heart failure.