Earlier studies indicate that TMT-induced neuronal degeneration is enhanced by adrenalectomy and prevented by exogenous glucocorticoid. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of TMT neuroxicity by corticosterone receptors including type
I (mineralocorticoid receptor, MR) and type II (glucocorticoid receptor, GR) in adult mice. The systemic injection of TMT at the dose of 2.0 or 2.8 mg/kg produced a marked elevation in the level of plasma corticosterone that was both dose and time dependent. The MR agonist aldosterone had the ability to exacerbate TMT cytotoxicity in the dentate granule cell layer, whereas its antagonist spironolactone protected neurons from TMT cytotoxicity there. In contrast, the GR antagonist Quizartinib mifepristone exacerbated the TMT cytotoxicity. Taken together, our data suggest ASP2215 price TMT cytotoxicity is oppositely regulated by GR and MR signals, being exacerbated by MR activation in adult mice. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The most prevalent phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are characterized by insulin resistance and androgen excess. The adipose tissue (AT) expandability hypothesis explains the development of insulin resistance in obesity and in cases of AT deficit. In line with
this hypothesis, we propose that hyperinsulinemic androgen excess in PCOS is often underpinned by exhaustion of the capacity to expand subcutaneous AT in a metabolically safe way. Such exhaustion might occur when a positive energy imbalance meets a normal fat-storage ADAMTS5 capacity and/or when a normal energy balance faces a low fat storage capacity. This concept thus explains how PCOS phenotypes might result from obesity, prenatal growth restraint or a genetic lipodystrophy, or, experimentally, from prenatal androgen
“In this short review, neurochemical targets are identified where nicotine, and possibly ethanol, may interact to prevent the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease. These are (a) the nicotinic acetycholine receptors present in the nigrostriatal area or on the surface of microglia, (b) monoamine oxidases and (c) inducible nitric oxide synthase. If such induced changes can be verified in clinical studies, this may help in the design of new therapeutic drugs which may be of relevance to diminish the incidence and perhaps the progression of the debilitating condition of Parkinson’s disease. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that infects humans. A 6-angstrom-resolution cryo-electron microscopy three-dimensional structure of BFV exhibits a typical alphavirus organization, with RNA-containing nucleocapsid surrounded by a bilipid membrane anchored with the surface proteins E1 and E2. The map allows details of the transmembrane regions of E1 and E2 to be seen. The C-terminal end of the E2 transmembrane helix binds to the capsid protein.