g. viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and new influenza strains, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria) and entrenched, pandemic diseases exemplified by HIV.
One clear approach to this problem is to target processes of the host organism rather than the microbe. Recent data have indicated that members of the tetraspanin superfamily, proteins with a widespread distribution in eukaryotic organisms and 33 members in humans, may provide such an approach.
Tetraspanins traverse the membrane four times, but are distinguished from other four-pass membrane proteins by the presence of conserved charged residues in the transmembrane domains and a defining ‘signature’ motif in the larger PD98059 of the two extracellular domains (the EC2). find more They characteristically form promiscuous associations with one another and with other membrane proteins and lipids to generate a specialized type of microdomain: the tetraspanin-enriched microdomain (TEM). TEMs are integral to the main role of tetraspanins as ‘molecular organizers’ involved in functions such as membrane trafficking, cell-cell fusion, motility, and signaling. Increasing evidence demonstrates that tetraspanins are used by intracellular pathogens as a means of entering and replicating within human
cells. Although previous investigations focused mainly on viruses such as hepatitis C and HIV, it is now becoming clear that other microbes associate with
tetraspanins, using TEMs as a ‘gateway’ to infection.
In this article we review the properties and functions of tetraspanins/TEMs that are relevant to infective processes and discuss the accumulating evidence that shows how different pathogens exploit these properties in infection and in the pathogenesis of disease. We then investigate the novel and exciting possibilities of targeting tetraspanins for the treatment of infectious disease, using specific antibodies, recombinant EC2 domains, small-molecule mimetics, and small interfering RNA. Such therapies, directed at host-cell molecules, may provide alternative options for combating fast-mutating PF-00299804 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor or newly emerging pathogens, where conventional approaches face difficulties.”
“Purpose: To analyze the composition of essential oils of two types of mint as well as compare the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the two oils.
Methods: Peppermint (M. piperita L.) and chocolate mint (M. piperita L.) oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oils were determined by broth dilution method.