Improving the science and conservation of coral reef ecosystems,

Improving the science and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, such as the significant fish-habitat relationship, is often the objective of marine ecology, and also is an important facet in the application of IKONOS imagery [21]. Harborne et al. examined intra-habitat variability in coral-reef fish by mapping habitat het
The resonant mirror (RM) setup is a leaky waveguide structure that first became commercially available as IAsys in 1993 by Fisons Applied Sensor Technologies [16]. Although the commercial availability of this instrument was recently discontinued, it is still important to note its application and contribution to the field.

The RM configuration is similar to SPR��s Kretschmann configuration, but differs in that RM relies on coupling of incident light through a prism with a high-index dielectric layer, rather than a metal surface, Figure (3).

This replacement combines the simple structure of SPR systems with the enhanced sensitivity of waveguide structures to produce sharper resonance peaks than SPR [58], thereby increasing the sensitivity of the technique. As light passes through the prism to a low-index medium, it couples with the high-index resonant layer, thereby allowing total internal reflection to occur at the boundary of the sensing layer. Similar to SPR, resonance only occurs when the angle of the incident light and the resonant modes in the high-index layer are phase-matched, resulting in strong reflection at the output.

Any change in the refractive index of the biological layer at the surface corresponds to a change in the angle of light that satisfies this resonance condition [59,60].

Although the waveguide structure of the RM allows for both TM and transverse electric (TE) resonances (with different angles) to occur, generally only one is physically measured since TM and TE modes diverge when adjusting the thickness of the resonant structure for optimal sensitivity AV-951 [60].Figure 3.Schematic of a resonant mirror biosensor. Light reflected from a prism is coupled to a resonant structure (low and high index coupling layers) to produce an evanescent wave at the sensing surface. Light is then reflected out of the prism and a detector …

Identical to SPR, RM has been used to monitor many different molecular interactions of macromolecules [61�C64] and has parallel capabilities in terms of surface modifications. The cuvette structure of the RM biosensor, however, provides an advantage over flow through microfluidic Drug_discovery systems commonly used in SPR when sample conservation is imperative. Use of a stirring bar in the cuvette is also helpful since the constant mixing limits mass transport effects [16].4.

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