In contrast, P2X(7) agonists significantly decreased the number o

In contrast, P2X(7) agonists significantly decreased the number of viable RGCs. In vivo, P2X(7) antagonists at various doses were injected into the

vitreous body immediately after ONC injuries in rats. Surviving RGCs were stained with anti-neuron-specific beta-tubulin antibody in flat-mounted retinas. RGCs were observed to decrease to 61% of baseline 7 days after ONC injury, whereas RGCs were significantly preserved when P2X(7) antagonists selleck compound were applied. When P2X(7) receptor expression was examined immunohistochemically in rat retinas after ONC, the retinal expression of the P2X(7) receptors was observed to be upregulated after ONC and peaked on day 3. Meanwhile, P2X(7) antagonists suppressed this upregulation. Collectively, these results suggest that P2X(7) antagonists

prevent loss of RGCs after ONC, and that this protective effect is possibly mediated through suppressing the upregulation of retinal P2X(7) expression. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Domestic ducks in southern China act as an important reservoir for influenza viruses and have also facilitated the establishment of multiple H6 influenza virus lineages. To understand the continuing evolution of these established lineages, 297 H6 viruses isolated from domestic ducks during 2006 and 2007 were genetically and antigenically analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses showed that group II duck H6 viruses selleck products had replaced the previously predominant group I lineage and extended their geographic distribution from coastal Phospholipase D1 to inland regions. Group II H6 virus showed that the genesis and development of multiple types of deletions in the neuraminidase (NA) stalk region could occur in the influenza viruses from domestic ducks. A gradual replacement of the N2 NA subtype with N6 was observed. Significant antigenic changes occurred within

group II H6 viruses so that they became antigenically distinguishable from group I and gene pool viruses. Gene exchange between group II H6 viruses and the established H5N1, H9N2, or H6N1 virus lineages in poultry in the region was very limited. These findings suggest that domestic ducks can facilitate significant genetic and antigenic changes in viruses established in this host and highlight gaps in our knowledge of influenza virus ecology and even the evolutionary behavior of this virus family in its aquatic avian reservoirs.”
“Abuse of methylphenidate (Ritalin) is rising, particularly during adolescence and early adulthood, but the long-term effects of its abuse during adolescence are unclear.

In experiment 1, we examined the effect of adolescent methylphenidate self-administration (0.0625 mg/infusion), as compared with cocaine self-administration (0.125 mg/infusion), under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement in male Sprague-Dawley rats during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 32-47) on adult dopamine-mediated behaviors (PND > 70).

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