KRG protects aflatoxin B1- [20] and acetaminophen-induced hepatot

KRG protects aflatoxin B1- [20] and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity [21] and increases liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy [22] in animal models. We recently reported that KRG effectively protects against liver fibrosis induced by chronic CCl4 treatment [23]. However, the effects of KRG on alcohol-induced liver damage and the expression of lipogenic genes have not yet been fully established. In the present study, we examined the effect of KRG in mice after chronic EtOH treatment and in EtOH-treated hepatocytes. Histopathology and biochemical analysis verified the ability of KRG extract (RGE) to protect against EtOH-induced

fat accumulation and oxidative stress, and to restore liver function. Moreover, CB-839 cost RGE recovered the activity of AMPK and Sirt1 in alcohol-fed mice. In agreement with the in vivo data, RGE and its major ginsenosides possess the ability to recover homeostatic lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. These results demonstrate that KRG inhibits alcohol-induced steatosis through the AMPK/Sirt1 signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that KRG may have a potential to treat ALD. Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet was purchased from Dyets, Inc. (Bethlehem, PA, USA). Antibodies directed against CYP2E1, 4-hydroxynonenal

(4-HNE), PPARα, and SREBP-1 were supplied by Abcam (Cambridge, UK). Antibodies that specifically recognize phosphorylated AMPK, AMPK, phosphorylated ACC, and Sirt1 were obtained from Cell Signaling (Beverly, MA, USA). The nitrotyrosine polyclonal antibody was purchased Pexidartinib nmr from Millipore Corporation (Billerica, MA, USA). Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G were provided by Zymed Laboratories Inc. (San Francisco, CA, USA). RGE was kindly provided by KT&G Central Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea). Briefly, RGE was obtained from PIK-5 6-year-old roots of P. ginseng Meyer. The ginseng was steamed at 90–100°C for 3 h and dried at 50–80°C. The red ginseng was extracted six

times with water at 87°C for 12 h. The water content of the pooled extract was 36% of the total weight. Ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, and Rd) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Corporation (St Louis, MO, USA). Animal studies were conducted under the guidelines of the Institutional Animal Use and Care Committee at Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea. C57BL6 mice were obtained from Oriental Bio (Sungnam, Korea) and acclimatized for 1 week. Mice (n = 8/group) were given free access to either the control diet or the Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet containing EtOH with or without RGE. The body weight and general condition of the animals were monitored at least once a week. The diet was kept refrigerated in the dark. EtOH was incorporated into the diet just before it was supplied to the animals. We used two animal models to evaluate the effect of RGE on alcohol-induced fatty liver and liver injury as previously reported [24], [25] and [26].

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