Nominal logistic regression was also done to examine the hyperten

Nominal logistic regression was also done to examine the hypertension prevalence by quintile of calcium and citrate excretion.

Results: On adjusted multivariate analysis compared with normotensive stone formers those with hypertension excreted 25.6 mg per day more urine calcium, corresponding to a 12% increase in urinary calcium excretion. The relative risk of hypertension was significantly associated with quintile of PD173074 calcium excretion but not with quintile of citrate excretion (1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.61 vs 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.14).

Conclusions: In stone formers hypertension

was associated only with significantly increased urine calcium. This association is important when treating patients with nephrolithiasis since those with hypertension may require unique dietary and medical therapy.”
“Alterations in exploratory behavior are a fundamental feature of bipolar mania, typically characterized as motor hyperactivity and increased goal-directed AG-014699 concentration behavior in response to environmental cues. In contrast, abnormal exploration associated with schizophrenia and depression can manifest as prominent withdrawal, limited motor activity,

and inattention to the environment. While motor abnormalities are cited frequently as clinical manifestations of these disorders, relatively few empirical studies have quantified human exploratory behavior. This article reviews the literature characterizing motor and exploratory behavior associated with bipolar disorder and genetic and pharmacological animal models of the illness. Despite sophisticated assessment of exploratory behavior in rodents, objective quantification of human motor activity has been limited primarily to actigraphy studies with poor cross-species translational value. Furthermore, symptoms that reflect

the cardinal features of bipolar disorder have proven difficult to establish in putative animal models of this illness. Bcl-w Recently, however, novel tools such as the human behavioral pattern monitor provide multivariate translational measures of motor and exploratory activity, enabling improved understanding of the neurobiology underlying psychiatric disorders. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: ESWL (R) is a minimally invasive, efficacious therapy for most renal stones. However, an optimal voltage treatment protocol ensuring effective stone comminution while minimizing tissue injury is not well established. We performed a prospective, randomized trial of the stone-free rate and renoprotective effect of an escalating vs a fixed voltage treatment strategy during ESWL.

Materials and Methods: Between February 2006 and June 2008 we enrolled 45 patients undergoing ESWL for a renal stone in this institutional review board approved trial. A Dornier (R) DoLi 50 lithotriptor was used.

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