Rats were trained on a reaction time (RT) task demanding conditioned lever release with discriminative visual stimuli signaling in advance the
upcoming reward PF477736 purchase magnitude (one or five food pellets). After acquisition, RTs were guided by stimulus-associated reward magnitudes, i.e. RTs of responses were significantly shorter for expected high versus low reward. Thereafter, stimulus-reward magnitude contingencies were reversed and learning was tested under reversal conditions for three blocks after pre-trial infusions of the selective D1 or D2 receptor antagonists R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepinhydrochloride (SCH23390), eticlopride, or vehicle. For comparisons, we included intra-OFC infusions of the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor Selinexor mw antagonist AP5. Results revealed that in animals subjected to intra-OFC infusions of SCH23390 or eticlopride learning a reversal of previously acquired stimulus reward-magnitude contingencies was impaired. Thus, in a visual discrimination task as used here, D1 and D2 receptor-mediated signaling in the OFC seems to be necessary to update the reward-predictive significance of stimuli. (C) 2008
IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is mediated by survival of leukaemic stem cells following remission-induction chemotherapy. It would therefore be useful to identify therapeutic agents that target leukaemic stem cells. We devised a flow cytometric chemosensitivity assay allowing 48 h culture of leukaemic blasts in a defined microenvironment followed by enumeration of viable CD34+CD38-CD123+ leukaemic stem and progenitor cells (LSPC). The assay was used to investigate the LSPC response to cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) Tacrolimus (FK506) and to the FLT3
inhibitor AG1296. There was a 3.6-fold increase in Ara-C-treated LSPC survival under defined ‘niche-like’ conditions compared to culture without microenvironmental support. Nine AML samples with internal tandem duplications of FLT3 (FLT3/ITDs) were treated with AG1296. Three samples were very sensitive (>50% kill) and 4 were moderately sensitive (10-50% kill) in bulk suspension culture without microenvironmental support. However, under defined ‘niche-like’ conditions, the survival of LSPC was enhanced rather than inhibited by AG1296 treatment. We conclude that an interaction between LSPC and a defined in vitro microenvironment models a chemoresistant niche. Our data point to a need to investigate more novel chemotherapeutic agents under these stringent conditions to identify agents that may be suitable to target minimal residual disease in AML.