Readout of a neo-epitope on the TCC, which is dependent of hydrophobic interactions with the target, could thus be influenced by other factors than the upstream complement components. The complement activity levels were analysed
in patients with defined complement deficiencies. Serum samples deficient in C2 showed normal AP activity but undetectable CP DAPT in vitro and LP activity. This is due to a lack of formation of a functional CP and LP C3-convertase. Factor I and factor H deficiency leads to sustained consumption of complement, which explains the reduced complement activity in all the pathways. Sera from patients diagnosed with HAE, due to lack of the inhibitor of C1r/s (C1INH) were also tested. Lack of C1INH leads to consumption of components of the classical pathway , and consistent with this, a decreased functional activity of the classical pathway was demonstrated
in nine of 10 of these sera. These results demonstrate that by analysing and comparing the functional capacity of each complement p38 MAPK signaling pathway, it is possible to obtain reliable clues to which component(s) of the complement system that are functionally defect or present in insufficient amount to activate complement. In summary, we have developed and analysed ELISA-based assays for the measurement of the functional activation capacity of the three complement pathways. These methods are applicable at high serum concentrations, which minimize false negative and represent – especially for the assessment of the MBL activity – an improvement on the existing assays. This work was supported by the University of Southern Denmark and the John and Birthe Meyer Foundation. A PCT application (PCT/DK2008/050221) has been submitted
for the use of SPS in complement assays. “
“Infections that occur early in life may have a beneficial effect Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) on the immune system and thereby reduce the risk of allergen sensitization and/or allergic disease. It is not yet clear to what extent specific virus and/or bacteria can mediate this effect. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of virus and bacteria in CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine production in newborns. We compared the effects of five bacteria (Staphlococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidus) and seven virus (adenovirus, coronavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, morbillivirus and poliovirus) on the Th1/Th2 cytokine production in mixed lymphocyte reactions using CD4+ T cells from cord blood cocultured with allogenic myeloid or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. When comparing the baseline cytokine production prior to microbial stimulation, we observed that cord plasmacytoid DC were stronger inducers of Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) compared with cord myeloid DC and to adult DC.