Similarities among normal elements, hyperplastic conditions and benign or malignant lesions can make separation difficult. The “gray zones” representing the overlapping in the sequence of normal parenchyma/ hyperplasia/ adenoma/ carcinoma signify a difficult and controversial diagnostic task, which merits special attention. Furthermore, in most endocrine tumors, the diagnosis of carcinoma is justified only in the presence of local or distant metastases. More precise guidelines are needed, by improving the currently available
criteria, to minimize the “gray zones,” leading to a more accurate separation of such endocrine lesions.”
“Objective. Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current Compound C state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. Methods. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated
with implementation. Results. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n = 15 interventions). Most AZD5363 chemical structure (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Conclusions. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature
click here and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals’ concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. Materials and Methods Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN) and the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria, the authors organized three focus groups with Nigerian health care professionals interested in palliative care, unstructured interviews with key role players for palliative care and representatives of telecom companies, and field visits to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare clinics that provided palliative care.