Therefore, T-tau has not been suggested as a marker for the differential diagnosis of AD.T-tau rather reflects unspecific processes of axonal damage and neuronal degeneration. This notion is further
supported by the Increase in CSF T-tau In disorders with extensive and/or rapid neuronal degeneration, such as CJD.86,87 A highly significant Increase of 580% was documented in CJD compared to AD patients. At a cutoff level of 2130 pg/mL, T-tau yielded a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100% between AD and CJD.88 An elevation of CSF T-tau, correlating with clinical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical severity, has been shown in normal pressure hydrocephalus.89 Moreover, a marked transient increase In CSF T-tau Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has been demonstrated after acute stroke. The transient
Increase In CSF T-tau correlated with the infarct size measured by cranial OF.90 Elevated levels of CSF T-tau have been found In considering patients with diffuse axonal damage after traumatic brain Injury, which decrease with clinical Improvement.91 In contrast, In neurological disorders that are mainly linked to more restricted cerebral locations and number of cells, such as alcoholic dementia, PD, progressive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical supranuclear palsy, and cortlcobasal degeneration, elevated CSF T-tau concentrations have been only occasionally reported48,60,68,76,92,93 or were normal.77 Predictive value of CSF T-tau in MCI for AD In patients suffering from MCI who converted to AD during follow-up, elevated T-tau levels were found In relatively few samples
at baseline.43,66 Memory-Impaired subjects who later progressed to manifest AD could Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be discriminated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by high CSF T-tau from those who did not progress with 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity.66 Longitudinally, elevated CSF levels of T-tau were found In MCI subjects and remained elevated after conversion to clinical AD.49 Another study showed that 88% of patients with MCI had elevated T-tau concentrations and/or low CSF Aβ1-42 levels at baseline.94 Thus, elevated CSF T-tau In MCI may have the potential to predict AD. Phosphorylated Cilengitide tau protein In order to Improve specificity of measurement of tau protein as a biomarker of AD, assays have been developed to specifically detect phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) In CSF. These assays use monoclonal antibodies specific for phosphorylated epitopes of tau: tau protein phosphorylated at serine 199 (P-tau199), selleck chemicals llc threonine 231 and serine 235 (P-tau231-235),23 threonine 231 (P-tau231),24 threonine 181 (P-tau181),22,95 and serine 396 and serine 404 (P-tau396/404).96 A marked Increase In the CSF level of P-tau Is found In AD.83 This Increase probably reflects the phosphorylation state of tau, and thus possibly also the formation of tangles In AD.