2 mL/kg BW of FO and SBO. The increases in mean plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, peak values, and areas under the curve were similar for all diets (time P < 0.05. diet not significant). The addition of FO or SBO at 0.2 mL/kg BW to a starchy meal did not affect acute glucose and insulin responses. To avoid high postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses feeding strategies should be designed primarily to reduce starch intake rather than the addition of fat. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure
JQ-EZ-05 explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods A cohort of 189 (99 female, 90 male) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, State-Trait
Anxiety Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index and Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: general distress, catastrophic thinking and pain-related fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain ASP2215 was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals
in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p=0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p=0.009) and greater odds (2.21 odds ratio) of experiencing referred pain when compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion BMS-754807 supplier Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input.”
“Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the Delta 9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD expression is scarce.