However, it is not known whether it has any impact on clinical ou

However, it is not known whether it has any impact on clinical outcomes. There is a need for a randomized trial with long-term follow-up to study the outcome of surgical ablation in patients with coronary and/or valve

disease and AF. Patients are prospectively enrolled and randomized either to group A (cardiac surgery with left atrial ablation) or group B (cardiac surgery alone). The primary efficacy outcome Selleckchem Nutlin3 is the SR presence (without any AF episode) during a 24-hour electrocardiogram after 1 year. The primary safety outcome is the combined end point of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal failure at 30 days. Long-term outcomes are a composite of total mortality, stroke, bleeding, and heart failure at 1 and 5 years. We finished the enrollment with a total of 224

patients from 3 centers in 2 countries in December 2011. Currently, the incomplete 1-year data are available, and the patients who enrolled first will have their 5-year visits shortly. PRAGUE-12 is the largest study to be conducted so far comparing cardiac surgery with surgical ablation of AF to cardiac surgery without ablation in an unselected population of patients who are operated on for coronary and/or valve disease. Its long-term results will lead to a better recognition of ablation’s potential clinical benefits. The PRAGUE-12 trial is partially funded by the Charles University Research Projects MSM0021620817 and UNCE 204010/2012. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.”
“Objective: To test the hypothesis that in vivo transgene expression mediated by single intra-articular injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) persists within intra-articular tissues 1 year post-injection and can be externally controlled using an AAV2-based tetracycline-inducible gene regulation system containing the tetracycline response element (TRE) promoter.

Methods: Sprague Dawley rats received intra-articular injections of AAV2-cytomegalovirus (CMV)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AAV2-CMV-luciferase (Luc) into their right and

left knees, respectively. Luciferase expression was evaluated over 1 year using bioluminescence imaging. After sacrifice, tissues were analyzed for GFP+ cells by fluorescent microscopy. To study external control of intra-articular AAV-transgene expression, another set of rats was co-injected with AAV2-TRE-Luc and AAV2-CMV-reverse-tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA) into the right knees, and AAV2-CMV-Luc and AAV2-CMV-rtTA into the left knees. Rats received oral doxycycline (Dox), an analog of tetracycline, for 7 days. Luciferase expression was assessed by bioluminescence imaging.

Results: Luciferase expression was localized to the injected joint and persisted throughout the 1-year study period. Abundant GFP+ cells were observed within intra-articular soft tissues.

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