The largest concentrations are observed in the splanchnic blood r

The largest concentrations are observed in the splanchnic blood rather than in the systemic circulation.

Objective: In contrast with peripheral infusion, oral delivery of sodium N[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC) mimics endogenous secretion. We aimed to investigate how this affects food intake.

Design: Twelve healthy male subjects were studied in a

randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover trial. Each subject received in random order 2.0 mg GLP-1, 1.0 mg PYY3-36, or 2.0 mg GLP-1 plus 1.0 mg PYY3-36; the peptides were mixed with SNAC. The placebo treatment was the delivery agent alone. Food intake during an ad libitum test meal was measured.

Results: Both peptides were rapidly absorbed from the gut, leading to plasma concentrations several selleck screening library times higher this website than those in response to a normal meal. GLP-1 alone, but not PYY3-36, reduced total energy intake significantly, with marked effects on glucose homeostasis. Coadministration of both peptides reduced total energy intake by 21.5% and fullness at meal onset (P < 0.05) but not total 24-h energy intake.

Conclusion: The results show a marked effect of orally administered GLP-1 and PYY3-36

on appetite by showing enhanced fullness at meal onset and reduced energy intake. This trial was registered at as NCT00822705. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92: 810-7.”
“Multivisceral transplantations (MVT) are rarely performed procedures. In this case report, we present a 37-year-old male patient with a large retroperitoneal tumor. After exclusion of malignancy, we performed MVT (distal stomach, liver, pancreas, and small bowel). After a follow-up of 1 year, the patient is in good clinical condition. Histologic examination revealed a chronic sclerosing IgG4-associated disease. Our case shows that MVT can be successfully performed in this rare disease.”
“In a two-dimensional system the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) state is characterized by an insulating bulk

and two counter-propagating helical edge states. These edge channels are protected by time reversal symmetry and spin currents propagate without dissipation. It was shown that HgTe-based quantum well structures are the most suitable candidates for its experimental realization. Here, the selleck chemicals llc experimental requirements are discussed which lead to the observation of quantized edge channel transport which is one of the main signatures of the QSHE. Experiments will be presented which demonstrate the stability of the quantized conductance and its nonlocal character. Furthermore, evidence for the spin polarization of the QSHE edge channels is shown in an all-electrical measurement which demonstrates the potential of the QSHE for spin injection and detection applications in spintronics. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

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