Nevertheless, recruitment from diverse neighbourhoods and settings allowed for a sample with reasonable heterogeneity in age, occupational status and ethnic backgrounds and made it possible enough to stratify the analyses by sociodemographic characteristics. However, because some of the participants in the present study required assistance to complete the survey, interview administration rather than self-administration of the IPAQ-LF should be encouraged in any future national studies in the African region. Administering the IPAQ through interview has been considered as a viable and preferred option in developing countries.5
Conclusions Overall, the present study suggests that the modified IPAQ-LF demonstrated sufficient evidence of test–retest reliability and may be valid for assessing context specific PA behaviours of adults in Nigeria. Adaptation and criterion evaluation of the IPAQ-LF in other African countries could further contribute to our understanding of the impact of multiple levels of influence on PA behaviours of people in the African region. Supplementary Material Author’s manuscript: Click here to view.(3.7M, pdf) Reviewer comments: Click here to view.(152K, pdf) Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Mrs Salamatu U Aliyu
and Mr Sa’adu Inusa Kiriri for their help with questionnaire translations, and to the participants for their help for taking part in the study. Footnotes Contributors: ALO conceived and designed the study, contributed to cultural adaptation and acquisition of data, conducted the statistical analysis and interpretation of data, and drafted the manuscript. UMB and STP managed participants’ recruitment and data collection, and contributed to cultural adaptation. HNA and RWM contributed
to cultural adaptation and translations of the measure. AYO contributed to study design, acquisition of data and critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. Competing interests: None. Ethics approval: Research and Ethic Committee of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (ADM/TH/EC/75). Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Data sharing statement: Data set Batimastat for this study available upon request from the corresponding author.
Health outcomes are strongly correlated with social position in societies across the western world: individuals from deprived backgrounds die younger and experience a greater proportion of their lives with a disability.1–5 In the most deprived areas of England, for example, life expectancy is approximately 8 years less, and disability-free life expectancy 15 years less than in the least deprived areas.