According to PF-562271 concentration Alasino et al. (2011), SSL helps in maintaining the tearing quality. These authors also verified that the increase of the concentration of SSL produces a beneﬁcial effect on the sensory attributes of bread, including crumb texture score. In general, it can be concluded that breads with added SSL and maltogenic amylase presented an increase in volume and a reduction in firmness on Days 1, 6 and 10 of storage, as well as good acceptance regarding the sensory attributes evaluated. This study presents precise dosage values for practical application in white pan bread. Further research could include the use of combined emulsifier and enzyme in other bakery products, including fiber-enriched
products, cakes, etc., where an increase in shelf-life is technologically and economically important. “
“Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) is an important crop of several tropical countries. When ripe, pods are harvested from the trees and opened
to extract the wet beans (∼10% fresh weight of the cacao fruit). After fermentation of surrounding pulp, the beans are dried and bagged, constituting the cocoa of commerce, employed mainly in chocolate manufacturing ( ICCO, 2011a; Kalvatchev, Garzaro, & Cedezo, find more 1998). During the extraction of cocoa beans, pod husks, accounting for approximately 52–76% of the weight of the cacao fruit (Donkoh, Atuahene, Wilson, & Adomako, 1991; Fagbenro, 1988), are thrown away and may cause an environmental problem when dumped around the processing plants. In addition to foul odors due to decomposition, cacao pod husks may be a significant source of disease inocula, such as black pod rot (Barazarte, Sangronis, Methocarbamol & Unai, 2008; Donkoh et al., 1991; Figueira, Janick, & BeMiller, 1993; Kalvatchev
et al., 1998). Because each ton of dry beans produced generates approximately ten tons of cacao pod husks (Figueira et al., 1993; Kalvatchev et al., 1998) and because the world production of dry cocoa beans is projected to rise from approximately 3.6 million tons in 2009/2010 (from October to September) to 3.9 million tons in 2010/2011 (ICCO, 2011b), the burden of cacao pod husk waste continues to increase and represents a serious challenge for waste management. In cocoa producer countries, the processing of this cacao waste may offer economic advantages and decrease the extent of the associated environmental problems. An alternative method of processing cacao pod husks could be their use in pectin production, polysaccharides widely used as gelling and stabilizer agents in a variety of food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products (Rolin, 1993; Voragen, Pilnik, Thibault, Axelos, & Renard, 1995). Nowadays, commercial pectins come from citrus peel and apple pomace, both by-products of juice production and are generally, extracted with hot, diluted mineral acid (Rolin, 1993; Voragen et al., 1995).