For all flavonoids with losses of 162 u, galloyl-glucose ester (p

For all flavonoids with losses of 162 u, galloyl-glucose ester (peak 1), myricetin

glucoside (peak 8) and diglucosides of dihydromyricetin (peak 3), dihydroquercetin (peak 5), methyl-dihydromyricetin (peak 6), and dimethyl-dihydromyricetin (peak 7), the hexose was assigned as glucose due to the fact that this monosaccharide Inhibitor Library price was the only hexose found in the anthocyanins identified in jambolão in the present and previous studies (Brito et al., 2007, Li et al., 2009a, Li et al., 2009b and Veigas et al., 2007). This is the first time that the identification of non-anthocyanic flavonoids is reported in jambolão fruits. However, gallic acid, myricetin, myricetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside and myricetin 3-O-(4″-O-acetyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, all found in the fruit, were previously identified through MS and NMR in jambolão leaves (Mahmoud et al., 2001). The carotenoids found in jambolão were identified based on the combined information obtained from the elution order on C30 column, and characteristics of UV–Vis and mass spectra (Table 4) compared to standards and published data (Britton et al., 2004, De Rosso and Mercadante, 2007a and De Rosso and Mercadante, 2007b). The MS/MS fragments, characteristic of the polyenic chain and functional groups, allowed the confirmation of the assigned protonated molecule. The identification of all-trans-lutein (peak 4), all-trans-zeaxanthin

(peak 5), all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (peak 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase 7), all-trans-α-carotene (peak 11), PD0332991 molecular weight and all-trans-β-carotene (peak 12) was confirmed by co-chromatography with standards. A detailed description of carotenoid identification in fruits using the information above was already reported by De Rosso and Mercadante, 2007a and De Rosso and

Mercadante, 2007b. The profile of carotenoids from jambolão is marked by the presence of all-trans-lutein, 43.7% of the total carotenoids, and all-trans-β-carotene (25.4%), along with their cis isomers ( Table 4, Fig. S5 and S6 from Supplementary data). As far as we are concerned, there are no other studies reporting the composition of carotenoids from jambolão. The profile of jambolão carotenoids is similar to that of camu–camu (M. dubia), other fruit also belonging to the Myrtaceae family, where the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (45.2–55.0%) and β-carotene (13.0–20.5%) ( Zanatta & Mercadante, 2007). Considering that the jambolão functional extract has high contents of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, and negligible carotenoids (Table 1), the following discussion about antioxidant activity was based on the anthocyanins behaviour. The same dilution of FE used for the ABTS + test in buffer was used to measure the UV–Vis spectra (data not shown) and the CIELAB colour parameters in all pH conditions (1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0). These results are shown in Table 5.

The first study that generally assessed the long-term effect of G

The first study that generally assessed the long-term effect of GM feed on rat health was in 2002 (Wang et al., 2002). It investigated a GM rice (KMD1) that is approved for commercial use only in China. This approval was granted seven MAPK inhibitor years after the Wang et al. (2002) study was published (Chen et al., 2011). Two other studies also investigated this crop (Kroghsbo et al., 2008 and Schrøder et al., 2007), both of which were published prior to the approval. The

remaining 16 (76%) published studies found in this review were published after the crops had been approved for human and/or animal consumption. Half of these were performed at least nine years after the approval was granted. Five studies based their methodology on the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing of chemicals — OECD Guideline 408: repeated dose 90 day oral toxicity selleck compound study (OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), 1981 and OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), 1998). Fourteen studies indicated that the digestive tract was investigated histopathologically,

but no details were given as to what analyses were performed. The only details most often provided were that tissue samples were processed, paraffin embedded, and sections were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Sections were then assessed using light microscopy (LM). Seralini et al. (2012) indicated that sections were stained with HES, but failed to specify whether this abbreviation meant haematoxylin and eosin, haematoxylin eosin safran/saffron or haematoxylin erythrosine saffron stain. Seralini et al. (2012) also indicated that

if any tumours were observed, they were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). There was no mention if tumours were observed in the GI tract. Six of the studies indicate that a pathologist or veterinary pathologist performed the histopathological analysis. Five studies provided Astemizole some form of results of their analyses, whilst most limited their results section to a statement that overall there were no treatment-related or diagnostically-significant observations. Overall, all the studies examining the GI tract concluded that there were no toxicological or pathological changes observed that could be related to feeding GM crops to rats. The digestive tract is the first site of contact with the body of any ingested food. Therefore, if a novel food is toxic to the body, signs of toxicity may be present in the GI tract. Often these changes may only be detectable by histopathological analysis and not macroscopic observations (Morini and Grandi, 2010). Whilst 14 out of the 21 studies reviewed (67%) indicated that organs of the digestive tract were collected for histopathological examination, none of the methods sections in these publications included any details as to the nature of the histopathological examination.

In the present study, discrimination between two processed ginsen

In the present study, discrimination between two processed ginseng genera and exploration of the characteristic chemical markers of processed ginseng were performed. In targeted analysis, ginsenoside Rf was confirmed as a chemical marker of KRG. Additionally, ginsenoside Ra1 and F2 were extracted

as potential chemical markers of KRG and ARG, respectively. An optimized UPLC-Q-TOF MS-based metabolic profiling method was developed for the analysis and evaluation of two processed ginseng genera. All known biomarkers, such as ginsenoside Rf and 24(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11, were identified. And additional potential biomarkers such as 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf were extracted from huge amounts of global analysis data using the proposed metabolomic approach. Thus, such metabolomics techniques should be buy Luminespib frequently applied in ginseng research. All authors declare no conflicts of interest. “
“Panax ginseng Meyer is a slowly

growing perennial herb belonging to the Araliaceae family. It has been cultivated for its highly valued roots and used in traditional medicine as a natural adaptogen for >1000 yr [1]. Ginseng has numerous pharmacological effects on humans, including anticancer [2], [3] and [4], antidiabetic [5] and [6], immunomodulatory [2] and [7], neuroprotective [2], radioprotective [8], antiamnestic [2], and antistress [9] properties. Most of selleck chemical the medicinal effects of ginseng have been attributed to triterpene saponins, which are referred to as ginsenosides. More than 40 ginsenosides have been isolated and identified from white and red ginseng, showing different biological activities based on their structural differences [10], [11], [12], [13], [14] and [15]. Two types constitute >80% of the identified ginsenosides: protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type saponins (sugar moieties are attached to the β-OH at C-3 and/or

C-20) such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd, and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins (sugar moieties are attached Erastin molecular weight to the α-OH at C-6 and/or β-OH at C-20) such as ginsenosides Re, Rg1, and Rf [16]. The cultivation of P. ginseng is difficult due to the long duration (4–6 yr) needed for cultivation, and due to plant diseases such as red skin and root rot. Furthermore, ginseng needs to be cultivated under special conditions to meet its requirements of about 30% full sunlight. High exposure to light (50% solar radiation) decreases the levels of ginsenosides in Panax pseudoginseng [17], while exposure to >36% sunlight has been reported to cause photobleaching and leaf death in P. ginseng plants [18]. Although there have been many studies on the production of ginsenoside using tissue and cell cultures, the productivity has been low. To meet the demand for safe agricultural products of high quality, the cultivation of ginseng by hydroponics was developed in Korea [19] and [20].

e , 27 trees with a maximum of 24 sample branches each, was estim

e., 27 trees with a maximum of 24 sample branches each, was estimated. equation(5) dMNtotalij=Mtotalij⋅qgMMij⋅qdgdMNtotalij=Mtotalij⋅qgMMij⋅qdgIn the last step we had to determine the dry needle mass for all branches of each sample tree. Therefore we built the ratio between dry needle mass and branch basal area (bba), since the latter one we had for all branches. equation(6) qnmbb=dMNtotalbbaEq. (6) was calculated separately for each sampled branch of each of the 27 trees in each stand and then modelled depending on the crown section. equation(7) qnmbb=a+b⋅csl+c⋅csmqnmbb=a+b⋅csl+c⋅csmEq.

(7) was then used to estimate the dry needle mass of all branches of all 27 sample trees in each stand. equation(8) dMNtotal All=qnmbb⋅bbadMNtotal All=qnmbb⋅bbaFinally, the branches with a base diameter < 10 mm, which were not part of the 3P-sample, GDC 0449 had to be added. We counted all these branches and then assumed an average branch base diameter of 8 mm and with this, calculated DAPT mw their dMNtotal All according to Eq. (8). Since we calculated the specific leaf area for each crown section separately (see below)

we also had to calculate the total dry needle masses (dMNjk) of each jth crown section of each kth sample tree. We therefore summed the dry needle masses (dMNtotal All) of all n branches (indicated by i) of each crown section of each sampled tree. equation(9) dMNjk=∑i=1ndMNtotal AllijkApplying the law of error propagation, and thus calculating the standard error of the needle mass of an individual tree (dMNtree) from the standard errors of the ratios q in Eqs. (5), (6) and (7), we achieved an average standard error of ±10.5%. This is just slightly above the result of a similar approach done by Eckmüllner and Sterba (2000) who had a CV of ±8.8%. In a second step we calculated the specific leaf area from the dry mass of 100 needles. Out of the dMNsample the mass of 50 needles was measured with an accuracy of 0.001 g and doubled to get the dry mass of 100 needles. With the relationship between specific leaf area and dry mass of 100 needles ( Hager and Sterba, 1985) we calculated the specific leaf area for the respective branch. The polynomial model describing this strong relationship is only plausible up to 600 g dry mass of 100 needles, i.e., higher needle weights result in an implausibly increasing specific leaf area. Hence, for all branches with a dry mass of 100 needles higher than 600 g, the specific leaf area was set to the specific leaf area of a branch with 600 g dry mass of 100 needles. The specific leaf area was now available for one sampled branch per crown section and for 9 trees per stand (for the pole stands, the two thinned and the 2 un-thinned stands were pooled).

Under the same conditions, an anodic potential equal to 700

Under the same conditions, an anodic potential equal to 700

MK-2206 ic50 mVsce was applied to each fragment during a period of 360 minutes. The renewing of the solution adjacent to the fragment was performed by using a 10-mL disposable syringe according to the current register profile. The embedded fragments were submitted to radiographic analysis before and after the tests. The radiographs were digitalized, and the fragments’ lengths were measured by using the Image-Pro Plus software (version 6.0; Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). The lengths measured before and after the polarization tests were compared as a means to quantify the dissolution process (t test, P < .05). Figure 2 presents the current values registered during the polarizations of fragments from groups D14, D6, and D3. The polarization of fragments from group D14 resulted in oscillation of current values within the range of 1.75–2.25 mA during the entire test. During the tests

of group D6, the current values remained stable in 1.40 mA during the initial 30 minutes and oscillated within the range of 0.00–1.50 mA during the last 20 minutes. During the polarization of fragments from group D3, current values oscillated within the range of 0.00–1.50 mA during the initial 15 minutes and within the range of 0.00–1.00 mA during the other 35 minutes. The total electrical charge values generated during the tests evidence a statistical difference among the 3 groups of fragments AZD2014 in vitro (ANOVA, P < .05). The larger is the diameter of the cross section of the exposed surface, the higher is the total value of electrical charge, which is directly related to the metal dissolution.

Fragment samples from groups D14, D6, and D3 presented mean values of the total electrical charge of 5.31 ± 0.56 mA, 3.06 ± 0.14 mA, and 1.88 ± 0.07 mA, respectively. During the 360-minute polarization of fragments from group D3, the current values oscillated within the range of 0.00–1.50 mA up to 120 minutes of the test, where the current peaks showed a gradual reduction. Then the current values oscillated within the range those of 0.00–0.30 mA until the end of the test (Fig. 2). The total electrical charges generated during the 360-minute polarization tests presented mean value of 5.67 ± 0.48 mA. The radiographic images obtained before and after the tests showed a reduction of the fragment length as a result of polarization (Fig. 3). This reduction was statistically significant, considering that the fragments presented an original length of 3.04 ± 0.04 mm and a final length of 1.31 ± 0.22 mm (t test, P < .05). The concept of retrieval of fractured instruments by an electrochemical process is based on the dissolution of a metal alloy in aqueous environments, and it requires the presence of at least 2 electrodes and a continuous electrolyte among them.

The resulting EGFP/miRNA expression vectors were termed pTO-mi- (

The resulting EGFP/miRNA expression vectors were termed pTO-mi- (carrying the negative control miRNA), pTO-E1A-mi3 (carrying amiRNA E1A-mi3), pTO-Pol-mi4 and pTO-Pol-mi7 (carrying the DNA polymerase-targeting amiRNAs Pol-mi4 and Pol-mi7, respectively), and pTO-pTP-mi5 (carrying the pTP-targeting amiRNA pTP-mi5). Versions of pTO-mi- carrying 2, 3, or 6 selleck products copies of the negative control miRNA-encoding sequence were generated in an analogous way and were named pTO-mi-x2, pTO-mi-x3, and pTO-mi-x6. Versions of pTO-pTP-mi5 carrying 2, 3, or 6 copies of the pTP-mi5-encoding sequence were termed pTO-pTP-mi5x2, pTO-pTP-mi5x3, and pTO-pTP-mi5x6. Construction of adenoviral amiRNA expression vectors: eventually, the expression

cassettes present in the pENTR4-based plasmid vectors were transferred into pAd/PL-DEST (Life Technologies Austria, Vienna, Austria) by site-specific recombination between sequences flanking the expression cassette and the corresponding respective sequences located on the adenoviral vector as described above. All resulting adenoviral vectors are depicted in Fig. 1. Restriction enzymes and DNA-modifying enzymes were purchased from Fermentas (St. Leon-Rot, Germany) or New England Biolabs (Frankfurt am Main, Germany). PCR reactions were performed with Pwo DNA polymerase obtained from Roche Diagnostics (Vienna, Austria) or PEQLAB (Erlangen,

Germany). Circular plasmid DNA was extracted with an EasyPrep Pro Plasmid Miniprep Kit (Biozym, Oldendorf, Germany), or a HiSpeed Plasmid Midi Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). PCR products were purified with a QIAquick PCR Purification Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany), and adenoviral DNA was isolated with a QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). Total RNA was extracted using a standard acid phenol/choloroform method. For amiRNA screens 1.2e + 05 HEK 293 or 1e + 05 HeLa cells were seeded into the wells of 96-well plates and reverse transfected with 100 ng of individual dual-luciferase reporter vectors and 200 ng of amiRNA expression vector using Lipofectamine 2000 (Life Technologies Austria, Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase Vienna, Austria). For each well 0.5 μl Lipofectamine 2000 was diluted with 24.5 μL OptiMEM medium (Life Technologies Austria, Vienna, Austria), and after 5 min of incubation, 25 μL diluted Lipofectamine 2000 was mixed with 25 μL of plasmid DNA diluted in OptiMEM. After 20 min of incubation, the mixes were pipetted directly into the wells of a 96-well plate and freshly harvested cells were added. After 24 h of incubation, the medium was exchanged, and the cells were incubated for another 24 h. Firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were determined at 48 h post-transfection using the Dual-Glo luciferase assay (Promega, Mannheim, Germany), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Luminescence was measured on a Wallac Victor 1420 Multilabel Counter (Perkin Elmer Austria, Brunn am Gebirge, Austria).

A believer in the hot hand would do the opposite To date, there

A believer in the hot hand would do the opposite. To date, there is little research on real gambling. Our research (1) demonstrates the existence of a hot hand, (2) investigates gamblers’ beliefs in a hot hand and the gamblers’ fallacy, and (3) explores the causal relationship between a hot hand and the gamblers’ fallacy. We used a large online gambling database. First, we counted all the sports betting results to see whether winning was more likely after a streak of winning bets or after a streak of losing

ones. Second, we examined the record of those gamblers who has long streaks of wins to see whether they had higher returns; this could be a sign of real skill. Third, we used the odds and the stake size to predict the probability of winning. The complete gambling history of 776 gamblers between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010 was obtained from an online gambling company. In total, 565,915 bets were placed by these gamblers during the Olaparib chemical structure year. Characteristics of the samples are shown in Table 1. Each gambling record included the following information: game type (e.g., horse racing, football, and cricket), game name (e.g. Huddersfield v West Bromwich), BMS 907351 time,

stake, type of bet, odds, result, and payoff. Each person was identified by a unique account number. All the bets they placed in the year were arranged in chronological order by the time of settlement, which was precise to the minute. The time when the stake was placed was not available but, according to the gambling house, there is no reason to think that stakes are placed long before the time of settlement. Each account used one currency, which was chosen when the account was opened; no change of currency was allowed during the year. If there is a hot hand, then, after a winning bet, the probability of winning the next bet should go up. We compared the probability of winning after different run lengths of previous wins (Fig. 1). If the gamblers’ fallacy is not a fallacy, the probability of winning should go up after losing several

bets. We also compared the probability of winning in this situation. To produce the top panel of Fig. 1, we first counted all the bets in GBP; there were 178,947 bets won and 192,359 bets lost. The probability of winning was 0.48. Second, we took all the 178,947winning bets and counted the isothipendyl number of bets that won again; there were 88,036 bets won. The probability of winning was 0.49. In comparison, following the 192,359 lost bets, the probability of winning was 0.47. The probability of winning in these two situations was significantly different (Z = 12.10, p < .0001). Third, we took all the 88,036 bets, which had already won twice and examined the results of bets that followed these bets. There were 50,300 bets won. The probability of winning rose to 0.57. In contrast, the probability of winning did not rise after gambles that did not show a winning streak: it was 0.45.

3) In part due to flow regulation, water consumption over the wa

3). In part due to flow regulation, water consumption over the watershed increased from 153.9 × 108 m3/yr in the 1950s to 422.3 × 108 m3/yr during 2000–2005 (Peng and Chen, 2009), resulting in declining water and sediment discharges to the sea (Wang et al., 2006 and Wang et al., 2007). Average suspended sediment concentration of the Huanghe water to the sea during 1950–1999 approached 25.5 kg/m3 (Wang et al., 2010). After the construction of the Xiaolangdi reservoir, however, the dam trapped substantial amounts of coarse sediment. The silt-laden

Dabrafenib chemical structure river has become cleaner, and average suspended sediment concentration of the Huanghe water to the sea during 2000–2012 was as low as 8.3 kg/m3, only 32.5% of the pre-2000 level. The average annual suspended sediment concentration during

2000–2012 fluctuated slightly from 4.4 to 19.2 kg/m3 (Table 4) a smaller range in comparison with 10–50 kg/m3 during 1950–1999 (Wang et al., 2010). These changes can be mainly attributed to dam entrapment of sediment. The elevated riverbed of the lower Huanghe is a result of successive sedimentation of coarse sediment carried by the river. The average grain size of surface find more sediment (collected in 2002) decreases from Gaocun station to the river mouth (as shown in Fig. 4A), reflecting the sedimentation process in the lower reaches. Since the beginning of WSM, however, both the suspended sediment concentration and average grain size increase from Huayuankou to Lijin, mainly due to intense riverbed scouring. Therefore, the initiation of WSM in 2002 caused a shift from sedimentation to erosion in the riverbed of the lower reaches. By 2011, up to 3.9 × 108 t sediment had been scoured during WSM, and the riverbed was lowered by ∼2 m. The scoured material provides an important source of fluvial sediment to the sea. During WSM in 2002–2010, the scoured sediments provided ∼60% of the fluvial sediments

to the sea, more than those directly released from the Xiaolangdi reservoir. Moreover, the scoured sediment is mostly sand, leading to an increase in grain-size for the suspended sediment from Xiaolangdi to Lijin (see Fig. 4A). Data at Lijin station reveals that the average grain size of sediment had increased from an average of 18 μm during 1950–1999 (Wang et al., 2010), to 24 μm during 2002–2012 (Table 4). This combined effect of sediment entrapment Bcl-w and riverbed scouring is depicted in Fig. 4B. Trapping by the Xiaolangdi dam leads to significantly-decreased suspended sediment concentration of the water entering the lower reaches, whereas average suspended sediment concentration and grain size increase in a stepwise fashion owing to scouring of the riverbed during the journey from Xiaolangdi to the sea, as shown in Fig. 4B. The transport of sediment through river channels has major consequences for public safety, management of water resources, and environmental sustainability (Frey and Church, 2009).

Although S paschale fixes N at a high rate per unit biomass ( Cr

Although S. paschale fixes N at a high rate per unit biomass ( Crittenden and Kershaw, 1978), the relatively small biomass of this species limits the total N contribution to the ecosystem ( Gavazov et al., 2010). Juniper was found to be present in relatively high density in the reference forest, learn more but is basically absent on the degraded forest stand. Juniper is highly sensitive to frequent fire and was likely lost to a combination of fire and removal for fuel wood (

Diotte and Bergeron, 1989, Thomas et al., 2007 and Ward, 1973). There is little C or N accumulation in the O horizon of the spruce-Cladina forests. The low level of C accumulated in the O horizon is reflected in C:N ratios which were nearly twice as high on reference forest sites

as compared to spruce-Cladina forests ( Table 2). The O horizon is the primary site of nutrient uptake in boreal forest soils ( Fisher and Binkley, 2000 and Kimmins, 2003). The loss of N capital from these soils directly reflects a reduction in productivity potential and a reduced potential for regeneration. The lack of difference in mineral soil C and N between the two forest types was relatively surprising given the long-term differences in O horizon C and N values. Total N in surface mineral soils to a depth of 10 cm is nearly equivalent to the total N in the O horizon of the reference forest, but is now the primary source of N in the spruce-Cladina forests. Selleckchem GDC-0068 This is important, because it implies the requirement for a shift in nutrient acquisition strategy from accessing N from the O horizon Ergoloid to accessing N via the mineral soil. Interestingly, roots of both spruce and birch in the Cladina dominated forests are exposed on the

surface of the O horizon perhaps allowing for access to nutrients in both the shallow O horizon and surface mineral soil. Charcoal contents of the mineral soil (0–5 cm) of lichen dominated forests were surprisingly lower than that in the reference forest. Charcoal as a percent of total C was 15.6 (±4.8 se, n = 9) for the reference forest and 5.2 (±0.5 se, n = 9) for the spruce-Cladina forest. This is possibly due to the consumption of charcoal during recurrent fire events when there is little surface fuel in frequently burned sites ( DeLuca and Aplet, 2008 and Pingree et al., 2012). Total P reserves in the surface mineral soils appeared to have been greatly reduced by repeated burning. This could be a result of volatilization of P, but the lack of fuel loading in the spruce-Cladina forest would suggest that there was little capacity to lose P by this mechanism as volatilization temperatures of 650 °C ( Neary et al., 1999) were not likely reached once initial fuel beds were consumed in earlier fires. It is more likely that the loss of vegetation from these sites resulted in a lack of plant recycling of P into surface soils and perhaps resulting in a net leaching of P below the rooting zone in presence of limited of vegetative uptake.

sediment mobilized from the coastal plains This investigation is

sediment mobilized from the coastal plains. This investigation is particularly crucial in the case of coastal rivers in Fukushima Prefecture to guide the implementation of appropriate soil and river Epigenetics inhibitor management measures. Nitta

River drains mountainous areas characterized by a high initial contamination to the Pacific Ocean, by flowing across coastal plains that were relatively spared by initial continental fallout but that are still currently densely populated (e.g. in Minamisoma town). The relative contribution of each source in the composition of riverbed sediment collected during the three sampling campaigns in the Nitta catchment was then quantified through the application of a binary mixing model. As an example, the relative contribution of ‘western’ source area Xw was determined from Eq. (3): equation(3) XW=Ag110mCs137S−Ag110mCs137EAg110mCs137W−Ag110mCs137E × 100,where XW is the percentage fraction of the western source area, (110mAg:137Cs)W

and (110mAg:137Cs)E are the median values of 110mAg:137Cs ratio measured in MEXT soil samples collected in the ‘western’ and the ‘eastern’ source areas of the Nitta catchment, i.e. 0.0024 and 0.0057 respectively ( Table 2), and (110mAg:137Cs)S is the isotopic ratio measured in the river sediment sample. We did not include initial river sediment as a third end-member as the click here violent typhoons that occurred between the accident (March 2011) and our first fieldwork campaign all (November 2011) likely flushed the fine riverbed sediment that was already present in the channels before the accident. Application of the mixing model illustrates the very strong reactivity of this catchment and

the entire flush of sediment stored in the river network during a one-year period only (Fig. 5). In November 2011, following the summer typhoons (i.e., Man-On on 20 July and Roke on 22 September that generated cumulative precipitation that reached between 215 and 310 mm across the study area), contaminated soil was eroded from upstream fields and supplied to the upstream sections of the rivers (Fig. 5a). Then, this sediment was exported to the coastal plains during the discharge increase generated by the snowmelt in March 2012, as illustrated by the measurements conducted on material sampled in April 2012 (Fig. 5b). Finally, sediment deposited within the river network was flushed by the typhoons that occurred during summer in 2012. Those typhoons were less violent than the ones that happened in 2011, and led to less intense erosion than during the previous year, but they were sufficiently powerful to increase river discharges, to export the sediment stored in the river channel and to replace it with material originating from closer areas (Fig. 5c).