Therefore, submaximal and field tests to estimate maximal values are invaluable in clinical practice, and may also be quite useful in some research settings. A second strength is the meta-analysis used to combine data from multiple studies, which provides a general estimate of expected values in this population. This review summarises
the values that have been reported in the literature to date for various components of physical function, namely aerobic capacity, upper and lower extremity strength and mobility in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Values for aerobic capacity and upper extremity strength are generally lower than published normative values in similar age groups. Lower extremity strength does not appear to follow this pattern, with values higher than population norms. This review Z-VAD-FMK manufacturer also highlights the variety of tests used in the literature
to assess physical function and the variations in testing protocols that may potentially contribute to the heterogeneity in values reported. Objective assessments of various aspects of physical function are important for documenting deficits in physical function and reporting change in response to specific interventions and monitoring individual progress in physiotherapy practice and research settings. As more research becomes available, expected values for sub-populations of different selleck screening library ages, stages of treatment and with various co-morbidities will be useful for both researchers and clinicians working with women after a breast cancer diagnosis. What is already known on this topic: Breast cancer and its treatment can cause impairment in physical function in women. What this study adds: Compared to normative data, women during and after treatment for breast cancer had reduced aerobic fitness. Upper and lower extremity strength was also reduced for women who were currently others receiving cancer treatment. Lower extremity strength was above population norms for women who had completed treatment. eAddenda: Tables 3, 4, 5 and 6, and Appendix 1 and 2 can be found online at doi:10.1016/j.jphys.2014.09.005 Ethics approval: N/A Competing interests: Nil. Source(s) of support: SENS and AAK are supported
by doctoral student awards from the Canadian Institute for Health Research. Acknowledgements: We wish to acknowledge Jonathan Chu, Jackson Lam, Kenneth Lo, and Vincent Sy, members of the 2012 MPT class at the University of British Columbia for their work on developing the search strategy for an earlier version of this review. Correspondence: Kristin L Campbell, Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Email: [email protected] “
“Contractures are a common secondary problem after acquired brain injury.1 and 2 Traditional treatment for contractures has primarily involved passive stretch. However, a systematic review found that commonly-used passive stretch interventions do not produce clinically worthwhile effects.3 Two reasons may explain this finding.