pylori-associated gastric disease The Mongolian gerbil model is

pylori-associated gastric disease. The Mongolian gerbil model is the best animal model for this purpose because H. pylori infection induces chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers, and intestinal metaplasia in these animals. Mongolian gerbils develop gastric neoplasia and gastric cancer after chronic infection by H. pylori strain 7.13 [28] and [29], as used in the present study. After the infection of gerbils with H. pylori, we determined: the changes in LPO level, which is an index of oxidative membrane damage; the activity of MPO, a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration; the induction of inflammatory mediator keratinocyte chemoattractant

factor (KC), an IL-8 homolog in rodents [30]; IL-1β; iNOS; and the phosphorylation of find more IκBα, which reflects the activation of NF-κB. In addition, viable H. pylori colonization in the stomach, changes in food intake and body weight, stomach weight/total body weight, and histological analysis of gastric mucosa were compared between animals that received RGE and those that did not. Five-wk-old male specific-pathogen-free Mongolian gerbils (MGS/Sea) with an average weight of approximately 40 g were purchased from Charles River Laboratories (Wilmington, MA, USA). Gerbils were housed in polypropylene cages on hard wood chip bedding in groups of five/cage. Food and water were provided ad libitum. The animals were maintained in a temperature-controlled room (22 ± 2°C) with a 12-h light–dark cycle. The

animal experiments were performed in accordance with institutional guidelines. Protocols were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Yonsei University Medical Center (Seoul, Korea; Permit No.: 10-107). Ten gerbils were included in each group. Histological observations are reported for 10 gerbils/group. All animals were maintained in the specific pathogen-free facility at Yonsei University Medical Center. H. pylori strain 7.13 was maintained as frozen stock at –80°C in brain–heart infusion medium supplemented with 20% glycerol and 10% fetal bovine serum. Bacteria were grown on horse blood agar plates containing 4% Columbia agar base (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK), 5% defibrinated horse blood (HemoStat Labs, Dixon, CA, USA), Amylase 0.2% β-cyclodextrin, 10 μg/mL vancomycin, 5 μg/mL cefsulodin, 2.5 U/mL polymyxin B, 5 μg/mL trimethoprim, and 8 μg/mL amphotericin B at 37°C under microaerophilic conditions. A microaerobic atmosphere was generated using a CampyGen sachet (Oxoid) in a gas pack jar. For liquid culture, H. pylori was grown in brucella broth (Difco & BBL Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) containing 10% FBS (Gibco-BRL, Grand Island, NY, USA). Cultures were shaken in a microaerobic environment. According to the growth curve, 108 bacteria were collected and resuspended in 500 μL of brucella broth for the infection of each animal.

Following a high dose oronasal challenge with Hendra virus, all v

Following a high dose oronasal challenge with Hendra virus, all vaccinated horses remained clinically disease-free, and there was

no evidence of virus replication or virus shedding in any of the immunized horses. On November 1, 2012, the vaccine called Equivac HeV® was released for use in Australia, and it is the first vaccine licensed and commercially deployed against a BSL-4 agent and currently is the only licensed prophylactic treatment for henipaviruses. The Nipah virus and Hendra virus are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that can infect and cause lethal disease across a broad range of vertebrate species including humans. They are present in a variety selleck chemicals of bat reservoirs, can be isolated and propagated and because of their associated high morbidity and mortality they pose a risk from natural outbreaks, laboratory accidents or deliberate misuse. For all of these reasons, the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies has been pursued. Over the past decade a considerable amount of research has focused on the henipavirus envelope glycoproteins

and their roles in the virus attachment and infection process. These efforts have now led to the development and testing of both passive and active immunization strategies applicable to both human and animal use. Presently, a cross-reactive human mAb (m102.4) has been demonstrated as an exceptionally efficacious post-exposure therapy in protecting both ferrets and nonhuman primates from lethal henipavirus disease, and its effectiveness led to its application in people as a compassionate use post-exposure prophylaxis in Australia. Also, as an active vaccination strategy for preventing Hendra virus infection and disease in horses in Australia and thus blocking potential transmission to people, a recombinant subunit vaccine, HeV-sG, which has been shown to provide check protection against henipavirus challenge in cats, ferrets, monkeys and now horses, has been licensed and deployed

for use in Australia. To date, henipavirus antivirals have only been deployed in Australia in the fight against Hendra virus. As Nipah virus causes significantly more instances of human disease, increased efforts are needed to advance Nipah-targeted countermeasures in endemic regions. Animal models have demonstrated that both the HeV-sG vaccine and the m102.4 human antibody can prevent both Nipah virus infection and/or disease. Efforts are currently under way to develop HeV-sG for human use as well as for use in pigs. However, the cost of the vaccine per animal and uptake of the vaccine in the absence of repeated outbreaks or disease will be critical factors influencing the feasibility of its application in Southeast Asia.

The gathered and combined filtrate was evaporated under vacuum wi

The gathered and combined filtrate was evaporated under vacuum with a Büchi Rotary Evaporator. The obtained extract was dissolved in 700 mL of water. The solution was extracted 3 times with 500 mL of water-saturated n-butanol. The mixed n-butanol phase was evaporated under vacuum and then lyophilized. Prior to pharmacological evaluation, the AG extract was analyzed using HPLC [20] and [21]. The HPLC system

was a Waters Alliance 2960 instrument (Milford, MA, USA) with a quaternary pump, an automatic injector, a photodiode array detector (Model 996), and Waters Millennium 32 software for peak identification and integration. The separation was carried out on a Prodigy ODS(2) column (250 mm × 3.2 mm inner Selleck LBH589 diameter) with a guard column (3.0 mm × 4.0 mm inner diameter) Veliparib in vivo (Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA). For HPLC analysis, a 20-μL sample was injected into the column and eluted at room temperature with a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. For the mobile phase, acetonitrile (solvent A) and water (solvent B) were

used. Gradient elution started with 17.5% solvent A and 82.5% solvent B. Elution solvents were then changed to 21% A for 20 min, then to 26% A for 3 min and held for 19 min, at 36% A for 13 min, at 50% A for 9 min, at 95% A for 2 min, and held for 3 min. Lastly, eluting solvents were changed to 17.5% A for 3 min and held for 8 min. The detection wavelength was set at 202 nm. All sample solutions were filtered through a membrane filter (0.2 μm pore size). The content of the constituents were calculated using the standard curves of 13 ginsenosides. The measurement for the content analysis of the AG was performed in triplicate. The experimental protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. All experiments were carried out in male A/J mice, aged approximately 6 weeks, weighing 18–22 g, obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME, USA). Mice were maintained under Florfenicol controlled room temperature,

humidity, and light (12/12 h light/dark cycle) and allowed ad libitum access to standard mouse chow and tap water. The mice were allowed to acclimate to these conditions for at least 7 days prior to inclusion in the experiments. As shown in Fig. 1, animals were separated into three groups (n = 12 per group): control (or negative control), model, and AG groups. All animals initially received a single intraperitoneal injection of AOM (7.5 mg/kg). One week after the AOM injection (set as Day 1), the animals began to receive 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 8 consecutive days. The animals in AG group also received AG extract 0.15 mg/mL in drinking water for up to 90 consecutive days. We calculated that the daily dose of American ginseng was approximately 30 mg/kg. For the acute phase observation, six animals per group were sacrificed on Day 14. The remaining animals were kept in the chronic phase and were sacrificed on Day 90.

We collected representative river sediment samples at exposed sub

We collected representative river sediment samples at exposed subaerial sites free of vegetation on channel bars between 17 and 23 November 2011 (69 sampling sites), between 3 and 8 April 2012 (40 sampling sites) and between 8 and 12 November 2012 (53 sampling sites) along the main rivers draining the area and some of their major tributaries. At each sampling site, five to ten subsamples

of fine sediment that is likely to be deposited after the last major flood were collected at several locations selected randomly down to the underlying coarser cobble or gravel layer across a 10-m2 surface by the means of a plastic trowel. They were subsequently NU7441 solubility dmso used to prepare a composite sample representative of the fine sediment deposited on the channel bars. Bulk samples were dried, weighed, ground to a fine powder, packed into 15 ml

pre-tared polyethylene specimen cups and sealed airtight. During the November 2012 fieldwork campaign, we also had the opportunity to collect samples of the different layers representative of the 1.6-m deep sediment sequence that accumulated behind Yokokawa dam on Ota River. Radionuclide activities (134Cs, 137Cs, 110mAg) in all samples were U0126 mw determined by gamma spectrometry using very low-background coaxial N- and P-types HPGe detectors with a relative efficiency of ca. 50% at 1332 keV. Counting time of soil and sediment samples varied between 8 × 104 and 200 × 104 s to allow the detection of 110mAg, which was present in much lower activities in the samples (2–2390 Bq kg−1) than 134Cs and 137Cs (500–1,245,000 Bq kg−1). The 137Cs activities were measured at the 661 keV emission peak. The 134Cs activities were calculated as the mean of activities derived from measurements conducted at 604 keV and 795 keV (228Ac activities being negligible compared to 134Cs activities) as both peaks are associated with the largest gamma emission intensities of this radionuclide. The presence of 110mAg was

confirmed by Methocarbamol the detection of emission peaks at 885, 937 and 1384 keV, but activities were calculated from results obtained at 885 keV only. Minimum detectable activities in 110mAg for 24 h count times reached 2 Bq kg−1. Errors reached ca. 5% on 134Cs and 137Cs activities, and 10% on 110mAg activities at the 95% confidence level. All measured counts were corrected for background levels measured at least every 2 months as well as for detector and geometry efficiencies. Results were systematically expressed in Bq kg−1 of dry weight. Counting efficiencies and quality assurance were conducted using internal and certified International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference materials prepared in the same specimen cups as the samples. All radionuclide activities were decay corrected to the date of 14 June 2011 corresponding to the reference date of the MEXT soil sampling campaign (used to compute the background contamination maps; see Section 2.

Therefore, high-throughput enzymatic assays for identification of

Therefore, high-throughput enzymatic assays for identification of modulators must adhere to stringent requirements

that surpass those of traditional bench-top activity assays. The components of the system must be stable over the time course of the reaction, often up to hours, and not deteriorate or otherwise be impacted by the liquid dispensers or additional equipment employed for automation. However, whether the assay is to be used for bench top or HTS use, of central importance is obtaining a fundamental understanding of the enzymology and biochemistry of the target because this information dictates the quality of the assay and the type of inhibitors that can be identified by HTS. Biochemical assay development begins with a purified or semi-purified enzyme preparation that demonstrates catalytic activity on a relevant substrate in a cell-free context. Often, literature surrounding homologous enzymes or enzymes catalyzing similar reactions can be used as a guide for setting up initial activity assays, providing insight into initial test conditions such as buffer and salt concentration, pH, cofactor requirements, etc. From these FG4592 preliminary experiments, many parameters must be considered to ultimately achieve a

robust and sensitive assay suitable for use in compound screening and drug discovery efforts. Of primary importance is determining the Michaelis–Menten steady state kinetic parameters (Km and kcat) of the enzyme for the substrate(s) consumed in the reaction ( Figure 2) ( Copeland, 2003). The Michaelis–Menten constants serve to anchor the assay among all of the variations tested during assay optimization and are critical in the interpretation of

IC50s determined for inhibitors of the enzyme assay. They can also help to elucidate the specific binding order of substrates in multi-substrate reactions and provide a means to compare the activity of multiple batches of the enzyme as well as the activity of similar enzymes on the same substrate. In addition, these values are a necessity in the development of a compound screening assay because they directly Succinyl-CoA relate to the modes of inhibition that can be detected with a given concentration of substrate ( Copeland, 2003). Methodology and application of Michaelis–Menten kinetic parameters will not be discussed herein; however Copeland presents a thorough review of these concepts as applied to drug discovery ( Copeland, 2005). Instead, we will address in detail those assay parameters that should be evaluated in the transition from an active enzyme preparation to a HTS-compatible assay. At the heart of an in vitro biochemical enzyme assay for drug discovery is the form of the enzyme to be targeted.

The study included 364 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pr

The study included 364 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor samples retrospectively collected from a cohort of EC patients who were operated in the Department of Gynaecology, Gynaecological Oncology and Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdańsk (Gdańsk, Poland) between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was primarily treated by surgery, with the possible option of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy administration. The inclusion criteria were operable

EC (stage IVB patients underwent cytoreductive surgery) confirmed by histologic examination and a signed consent form. The study was accepted by the Independent Ethics Committee of the Medical University of Gdańsk (NKEBN/269/2009, date: 14 September learn more 2009). Procedures involving human subjects were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. The tumor samples included all stages of endometrial carcinoma, from stage IA to IVB, as distinguished by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) in 2009 [7]. We analyzed all primary carcinomas of the uterine corpus, separating them into endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors. The latter included serous, clear GSK1349572 nmr cell, mucinous, mixed, squamous cell, and undifferentiated carcinomas [8]. Metastases included lymph node and distant metastases. The patients’ characteristics are summarized in Table 1. The median age was 63 (range, 26-89 years). Patients

with a body mass index higher than 30 were classified as obese [9]. A survival analysis was performed for 362 (99.5%) patients. After a median follow-up of

72.5 months (range, 0-158), 107 (29.4%) patients had died. The last follow-up data were collected in September 2013. The study was performed in accordance with the REcommendations for Tumor MARKer Prognostic Studies (REMARK) criteria [10]. Samples were collected by surgical excision before any systemic treatment and were fixed in 10% (vol/vol) neutral buffered formalin for up to 24 hours, dehydrated in 70% ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. FFPE tissue blocks were stored at room temperature for up to 14 years. The percentage of tumor cells in each FFPE specimen was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining reviewed by a certified pathologist. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from FFPE surgical Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase resection tumor specimens and control samples. Four 1.5-mm-diameter cores from each tumor were obtained from the most representative areas (well-preserved fragments of invasive carcinoma, without necrosis, autolysis, and squamous metaplasia) using a tissue-arraying instrument (MTA-I; Beecher Instruments, Sun Prairie, WI), and then reembedded in microarray blocks. Punches of normal tissues were added to each array to introduce built-in internal controls to the system. Consecutive 4-μm-thick TMA sections were cut and placed on charged polylysine-coated slides (Superfrost Plus; BDH, Braunschweig, Germany) for subsequent IHC analysis.

Recent MS applications demonstrate that progress is being made in

Recent MS applications demonstrate that progress is being made in this area, indicating that in the near future, MS and NMR will most likely be used as complementary technologies in large-scale epidemiology studies [44•• and 46••]. When not reporting absolute concentrations but relatively (to internal standards) quantified data of identified/unidentified

metabolites, as is often the case in global but also still biology-driven platforms, it is crucial to use pooled samples and/or AT13387 internal standards as quality controls and for correction of variations and possible biases in the overall analytical procedure during studies [47 and 48]. However, to accelerate biological interpretation by comparison across studies and labs, and integration with other omics or clinical data (Figure 2), availability of identities and preferably the concentrations of the metabolites is important. As the concentration is influenced by the sample preparation procedure, availability of reference samples is important. To zoom into biochemical processes and pathways, and/or to validate biochemical mechanisms and to translate findings from cell systems to animals and to humans, and vice versa, stable-isotope based metabolomics is an emerging promising strategy [38•, 39 and 40]. For the discovery of biomarkers of disease risk epidemiological studies

are typically used. Associations between metabolite profiles and clinical outcome, increasingly Ribonucleotide reductase also in combination with genetic data, suggest relevant pathways for the onset or progression of a multifactorial disease. However, these biomarkers are not able to Caspase inhibitor predict the disease onset or progression of an individual. For the discovery of metabolic fingerprints to predict disease onset and progression or outcome of interventions at an individual level, longitudinal

studies are needed based on monitoring individuals over a year or more. We are convinced that understanding the dynamics during loss of allostasis or (sudden) systemic changes will be crucial to understand the underlying biological processes. As an example the oral glucose tolerance test is the widely expected approach to test for an early onset of diabetes type 2. Whereas under unperturbed conditions no diagnostic conclusion could be obtained, studying the system response revealed differences, and studying the response from a broader system perspective yielded even more insights [49]. Drugs are an alternative to perturb biological systems to study diseases and their modulation by drugs [3]. These longitudinal studies ask for innovative analytical approaches allowing the analysis of thousands of samples at a low price per sample most likely in the order of tenths of Euro’s. Where NMR and direct-infusion mass spectrometry are slowly reaching the desired throughput, they only partially cover the biochemical networks needed for personalized health monitoring.

The observed elevation in TRAP1 protein abundance requires furthe

The observed elevation in TRAP1 protein abundance requires further validation

to determine whether enhanced TRAP content may limit cell damage and regulate cell repair for restoration or apoptosis after elevated stress response [60]. The functional role of PARK7 in skeletal muscle is still unknown, but PARK7 knockout mice show a reduced mitochondrial ACO2 activity and enhanced mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase activity, which suggests a deficient mitochondrial H2O2 scavenging function [61] and [62]. We report that ACO2 abundance is increased in myotubes from T2D patients, while PARK7 protein level is reduced. Whether PS-341 mouse there is a direct connection between these proteins in metabolic pathways and disease predisposition requires further investigation. However, differential protein profiles of chaperones in myotubes derived from T2D patients supports the the growing idea that disturbances in the protein maintanance system may cause impaired mitochondrial quality control system and thereafter a fundamental disturbance of cellular

metabolic activity [55]. A comparison of the proteome of myotubes derived from NGT versus T2D patients revealed that several proteins involved in mRNA processing, regulation and transcription are altered. This finding advocates the idea that T2D imparts a disease-related inhibition of basic cellular functions in skeletal muscle. For example, KHSRP, a key mediator of mRNA decay known to promote the biogenesis of a subset of microRNAs [63], was more abundant Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 in myotubes from E7080 research buy T2D patients. KHSRP is phosphorylated by p38MAPK and Akt in the regulation of the mRNA degradation pathway [64] and turnover of myogenic mRNA [65]. Therefore, while KHSRP is more abundant in T2D myotubes, its role and function requires further study in relation to insulin

resistance. Proteome analysis also revealed that myotubes derived from T2D patients possess higher levels of the DNA repair proteins, XRCC5, and RECQL. The function of these proteins in metabolism and T2D is still elusive. Whether an increased DNA repair activity may reflect an enhanced oxidative stress caused by increased ROS and/or reduced oxidative defense remains to be determined. The differential proteome signatures of myotubes derived from people with T2D versus NGT offers new insights into causes of T2D, highlighting pathways involving disturbances in energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, protein dynamics and gene regulation. The analysis presented here demonstrates a clear disturbance of the protein signature in skeletal muscle myotubes derived from T2D patients compared to NGT subjects. Our results reveal that metabolic impairments, reductions in GSH concentration, and differences in the protein profile are retained in cultured differentiated myotubes from T2D subjects. Thus, our findings emphasize that an intrinsic proteome exists, directed by either epigenetic or genetic factors, in skeletal muscle from T2D patients.

αvβ8−/− CD103+ DCs

αvβ8−/− CD103+ DCs MK-2206 mw also

showed reduced production of inflammatory cytokines compared with CD103− DCs 6 ( Supplementary Figure 3), indicating that reduced TGF-β activation by αvβ8 does not result in an overt proinflammatory phenotype in CD103+ intestinal DCs. Data presented previously were obtained using intestinal DC subsets isolated from mLN, which include DCs draining from the small and large intestine. To determine whether CD103+ DCs present within intestinal tissues show a similar reliance on integrin αvβ8-mediated TGF-β activation to induce Foxp3+ iTregs, we first analyzed expression of β8 integrin on DCs isolated from small and large intestinal lamina propria. Similar to mLN DC subsets, CD103+ DCs from both the small and large intestine expressed high levels of β8 integrin (Figure 5A). Additionally, CD103+ DCs from both small and large intestine supported enhanced Foxp3+ iTreg induction versus CD103− DCs, which was completely reliant on expression of integrin αvβ8 ( Figure 5B). As

observed for mLN, iTreg induction in αvβ8−/− CD103+ DCs from small or large intestine was rescued by addition of active TGF-β ( Figure 5C). Interestingly, we observed slightly elevated expression of β8 on CD103− DCs from BMS-907351 research buy large intestinal lamina propria versus CD103− DCs from small intestine ( Figure 5A), mLN, and spleen (data not shown). However, such expression did not translate into an enhanced ability to induce iTreg, indicating a potentially novel role for β8 expression on CD103− DCs from the large intestine ( Figure 5B). Taken together, these data show that increased αvβ8-mediated TGF-β activation by intestinal CD103+ DCs is critical for their enhanced Edoxaban ability to induce Foxp3+ iTregs ex vivo. We next sought to determine whether integrin αvβ8 expression by intestinal

DCs supported enhanced Foxp3+ iTreg induction in vivo. To this end, we adoptively transferred ovalbumin antigen-specific CD4+ OT-II T cells into control or Itgb8 (CD11c-Cre) mice and supplemented drinking water with ovalbumin. T cells were isolated from OT-II/Rag−/− mice, which lack endogenous Foxp3+ Tregs. Previous experiments using this method have shown that Foxp3+ iTreg induction is promoted specifically in the mLN, at least in part via the enhanced ability of intestinal CD103+ DCs to promote iTreg induction. 6 and 7 In control mice, we observed ∼5% induction of Foxp3+ iTregs arising from adoptively transferred OT-II T cells specifically within the mLN (Figure 6A). This induced population was not observed in the spleen or in mice not fed ovalbumin (data not shown).

Access to instant test results would enable the growers to implem

Access to instant test results would enable the growers to implement timely orchard management practices. The commonly utilized bacterial gene used for laboratory based diagnostics of

Las is a fragment of the 16S rDNA gene (Li et al., 2006). We have developed LAMP primer sequences for the phage related region of the Las genome. If Las positives are found, the crude extracts used in LAMP assays can be re-evaluated in diagnostic laboratories by qPCR for the 16S rDNA region. Utilization of two different genomic regions will be beneficial in detecting potential contaminations. The LAMP assay developed here is about 100 times more sensitive than standard qPCR Trametinib molecular weight technique and hence likely to detect the bacterium in low-titer situations (Fig. 3). While testing a large number of plant DNA samples of different varieties, we observed that it was easier to discriminate between weak positives Selleck Pifithrin�� and negatives in LAMP assays rather than in qPCR assays where samples with Ct values of 34 or above are generally considered inconclusive. Very high levels of sensitivity of LAMP reactions have been reported in many other systems. In the filarial parasite

Loa loa associated with a tropical human disease Loiasis, it has been shown that LAMP assay can detect 0.5 ag of the worm genomic DNA; compared to the qPCR test that detects 0.1 pg, LAMP was considered 200,000 times more sensitive ( Fernandez-Soto et al., 2014). In our analysis, the increased sensitivity observed in LAMP compared to qPCR may be because Urease of two reasons: a) qPCR is generally conducted in a duplex format to detect plant gene (‘Cox’) or psyllid gene (‘wingless’) in addition to the bacterial gene (16S rDNA). When the bacterial titer is low, amplification of the internal control genes may deplete the reagents required for the amplification of the bacterial target gene and this may negatively affect the Ct value calculated in qPCR assays; b) when target concentration is low, the PCR inhibitors present in the extract may negatively affect qPCR Ct values. Such an effect seems to be less of a problem with LAMP reactions. When the qPCR

assays were conducted for only Las (without housekeeping gene) and the bacterial titers were low, the sensitivity of qPCR appeared to be lower than LAMP. The Liberibacter genomic region chosen by our study seems to be specific to Las and is not reported from other bacteria. Psyllids are known to harbor several endosymbiotic bacteria like Wolbachia (alpha proteobacterial group) and Candidatus Carsonella (gamma proteobacteria) ( Saha et al., 2012). The LAMP reaction was always negative with known Las-free ACP and B. cockerelli indicating that the primers did not amplify DNA from the endosymbiont populations. If the LAMP technology is extended in the future to test plant root samples that are reported to have the bacterium earlier than the canopy ( Johnson et al.