introduction of a new programme of vaccination, the incidence of infection would be expected to follow a well recognised pattern  and . There is an initial drop in incidence, called the honeymoon period, brought about by the addition of protection arising from immunisation to the existing naturally acquired check details immunity. The resulting fall in incidence leads to a reduction in naturally acquired immunity, allowing a partial rebound. Infection incidence then settles into a new suppressed cycle. This pattern is consistent with the observed pattern of laboratory confirmed influenza in England and Wales. While the temporal pattern of influenza incidence is consistent with the available observed data, the lack of recent population wide data on infection incidence and prevalence is a PFI-2 purchase limitation to modelling influenza transmission. The collection of good quality population level data on the incidence and prevalence of influenza infection would help to reduce uncertainty when calibrating such models. However, alternative analyses of the impact of vaccination policies, which fail to account for the dynamic nature of transmission, risk seriously underestimating the potential effects of such policies. A further weakness in the
model is the inconclusive Amisulpride nature of data on the duration of vaccine induced immunity as well as on that arising from natural infection. Should the duration of vaccine induced immunity be significantly shorter than its naturally arising counterpart, then the impact of paediatric vaccination would be reduced. While multiple studies have shown the indirect benefit (herd immunity) in adults through vaccinating children against influenza ,  and , each of these studies used different study designs resulting in variability in the estimated benefits. Additional studies comparing
real world dynamics of influenza transmission against dynamic models are of interest. This analysis demonstrates the complex and inter-related nature of factors influencing the evaluation of paediatric influenza vaccination. While there remains uncertainty in many of the parameters, the qualitative picture emerging suggests that paediatric vaccination may result in substantial benefits to children, as well as to those at risk of influenza related complications and to the elderly. “
“Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral disease that represents a major worldwide public health concern, particularly for those living in tropical countries and people traveling to these zones. Globally, more than 2.5 billion people are exposed to dengue virus (DENV) infection in endemic areas, and thousands of them die each year .